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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Notes - Part Seven

Course Code
Steve Joordens

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A reddish green would have to be signalled by a ganglion cell firing slowly and rapidly at
the same time (IMPOSSIBLE)
Negative afterimage: the image seen after a portion of the retina is exposed to an intense
visual stimulus; a negative afterimage consists of colours complementary to those of the
physical stimulus
Complementary items go together to make up a whole
When ganglion cells are excited or inhibited for a prolonged period of time, they later show
a rebound effect, firing faster or slower than normal
Celeste McCollough (1965): discovered one type of contingent colour after-effect
Dodwell and Humphrey (1990): suggested that the contour information of the grating acts
somewhat like the opponent processes of colour. Also suggested that the different sensations
are associated in a way similar to classical conditioning.
Approximately 1 in 20 males has some form of defective colour vision (sometimes called
colour blindness)
Males are more affected than females because many of the genes for producing
photopigments are located on the X chromosome (males only have one X chromosome,
females have two; a defective gene for males therefore will always be expressed)
Protanopia: a form of hereditary anomalous colour vision, caused by defective red cones in
the retina; to a protanope, red looks much darker than green
Deuteranopia: a form of hereditary anomalous colour vision, caused by defective green
cones in the retina; green cones are filled with red photopigment
Tritanopia: a form of hereditary anomalous colour vision, caused by a lack of blue cones in
the retina; affects fewer than 1 in 10,000 people (see the world in greens and reds)
Sound waves are measured in frequency units of cycles per second called hertz (Hz)
The human ear perceives vibrations between approximately 30 and 20,000 Hz
The eardrum (tympanic membrane) is a thin, flexible membrane that vibrates back and
forth in response to sound waves and passes these vibrations on to the receptor cells in the
inner ear
The eardrum is attached to the first of a set of 3 middle ear bones called the ossicles
The ossicles are known as:
1)The Hammer (malleus)
2)The Anvil (incus)
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