Chapter 1 Study Guide

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28 Dec 2010
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Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology
What is Psychology?
-to discover and explain causes of behavior
-application to treatment of psychological disorders and improvement of society
Why Behaviour is Studied?
-causal events -> events that cuase other events (including behavior) to occur
-intellectual curiousity -> want to find explanation and understand causes
-human behaviour is root of worlds problem i.e. war, agricultural activity
Fields of Psychology
2 types of psychologist
1. Scientist- try to discover causes of behaviour
2. Practitioner of applied psychology apply discovery to solution of problem
Area of Psychological Research
Research psychologists differ in 2 ways:
1. Types of behaviours (investigation)
2. Types of causal event (analysis)
Physiological Psychology
-focus on nervous system
-study behaviour in non-human animals, i.e. learning, memory, sensory process
-non-human animal used as a model
Comparative Psychology
-study of behaviour in various species to explain behaviour (evolutionary adaptation) to the
environment
-study inherited behavioural patterns i.e. courting & mating, predation & aggression,
defensive & parental behaviours
Behaviour Analysis
-the effect of environmental events on behaviour
-interested in study about learning and motivation
-perform experiment in applied setting i.e. school, home & business
-pleasant consequences -> behaviour repeated, unpleasant consequences -> action not
repeated
Behaviour Genetics
-role of genetics in behaviour
-gene is blueprint for the human brain
-examine similarities in physical & behaviourial characteristic of blood relatives because
genes are more similar
-breeding experiment with animal -> what kinds of behaviour can be passed on
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-Genetic code in relation to behaviour
Cognitive Psychology
-study mental processes & complex behaviours i.e. verbal behaviour, concept formation
-behaviour results from function of human in response to environmental event
-explanation involves mental process i.e. imagery, attention & mechanism of language
-usually do not use physiological mechanism, but some use brain scanning
Cognitive neuroscience
-try to discover the particular brain mechanism responsible for cognitive processes
- behaviour of people whose brains are damaged by diseases, stroke or tumour
-for example, effects on baby whose mother abuses drug
Developmental Psychology
-physical, cognitive, emotional & social development of children
-effect of aging on behaviour
-research on infant -> describe time that cognitive ability (memory) present
-provide baseline to develop test to assess cognitive deficits caused by brain damage
Social psychology
-effect of people on people
-perception, human interaction, attitude, group dynamic, emotional behaviour
-effect of pressure and advertisement
Personality psychology
-individual differences in temperament & patterns of behaviour
-causal events in persons history, genetically & environmentally
-for example, develop personality test to see which type is most susceptible to drug
Evolutionary psychology
-explain behaviour by looking at adaptive significance in evolution of modern species
-use natural selection as a guide
-trace evolutionary development & how it is an advantage, its effect on behaviour
Cross-cultural Psychology
-impact of culture on behaviour
-different behaviours to adapt the environment based on custom, habit, religious belief and
myth
Clinical Psychology
-psychological disorders & problem of adjustment
-help patient to solve problem, provide therapy
-research physiological, environmental factors i.e. parental upbringing, interaction with
sibling, social stimuli
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