Chapter 2 Study Guide

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30 Dec 2010

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Chapter 2 The Way and Means of Psychology
The Scientific Method in Psychology
-scientific method rules/ procedures that scientists follow in research
-based on logic and common sense
-originally devised by philosophers
-psychologists conduct 3 major types of scientific research
1. Naturalistic Observation & Clinical Observation
-observation of people & animals 1) natural environment, 2) undergoing treatment, 3) diagnosis
for a psychological condition
-provided foundations of biological & social science
-for example, Darwin`s classification of animals, plants, fossil theory of evolution
Montessori watched children in classroom idea about child development
Broca`s treatment of his patient who could not speak location of the language region in brain
2. Correlational Studies
-observational in nature, but involves more formal measurement
-environmental event, individual`s physical & social characteristic & behaviour
-examine relations of these measurements
3. Experiment
-identify causal relations among events
Progressive Sequence in Research
-naturalistic observation provide context of the problem
-identify phenomenon & indicate something about magnitude
-correlational evidence relation between observations
-systematic investigation produce concrete evidence about causal role
Rules of Scientific Method in Cause-And-Effect Relations
1. Identify problem & formulate hypothetical cause-and-effect relation among variable
-identify variables, describe relation among them
2. Design the experiment
-manipulation of independent variable, observation of dependent variables
-each variable must be operationally defined
-independent variable must be controlled
3. Perform the experiment
-organize material, train people, recruit volunteer, randomly assign volunteer
4. Evaluate the hypothesis by examining the data from the study
-involves math procedures to determine observed effect is statistically significant
5. Communicate the results
-description of procedure, results, discussion of their significance
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Identifying the Problem: getting an idea for Research
-hypothesis tentative statement about cause and effect relation between two or more events
-theory statements that describe and explain known facts, propose relation among variables
and make new prediction
-generate testable hypothesis supported and proved wrong by scientific research
Naturalistic & Clinical Observations as Sources of Hypotheses & Theories
-naturalistic observation observe without interference with people being observed
-take notes, classify behaviour into category, how events provoke them
-clinical observation report results in detailed description known as case study
-does not remain in the background
-object of therapy is to change patient`s behaviour & solve problems
-engage in activities designed to benefit the patient
-survey study action that interfere with natural or clinical setting
-researchers ask people specially designed and controlled questions
-description of the classes of responses to the questions
Designing an Experiment
-variable vary in value, presence vs. Absence
-manipulate describe setting the values of a variable to examine that variables`effect on
another variable
-experimental group exposed to particular value of independent variable
-control group exposed to naturally occurring variable
-independent variable variable that is manipulated
-dependent variable the one that we measure
-nominal fallacy erroneous belief that one has explained an event by naming it
-classify examine and discover events that cause a behaviour
Operational Definitions
-translation of generalities into specific operations
-independent & dependent variables researchers perform to set value and measure them
-validity how appropriate they are testing the researcher`s hypothesis
how accurate they represent variables whose value is manipulated or measured
Control of Independent Variables
-use a variable that is neutral and not a source of interest by itself
-confounding of variables introduce effects of another variable
-introduces one or more extra, unwanted, independent variables that vary synchronously with the
intended independent variable, he will not be able to distinguish the effects of any one of them
on dependent variable
effect of variables will be confounded
-habituation stimulus that is presented repeatedly, exhibit less and less of a response
-counterbalancing systematic variation of condition, i.e., order of presentation of stimuli
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