PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Heredity, Scientific Literacy, Gustav Fechner
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Psychology chapter 1
1.1 •Psychology is the scientific study of behavior, through, and experience, and how
they can be affected by physical, mental, social, and environmental factors.
•The scientific method is a way of learning about the world through collecting
observations, developing theories to explain them, and using the theories to make
oInvolves interaction between hypothesis testing and construction of
•A hypothesis is a testable prediction about processes that can be observed and
oCan be supported or rejected
oMust be testable
•Pseudoscience is an idea that is presented as science but does not actually utilize
basic principles of scientific thinking or procedure.
•Theory is an explanation for a broad range of observations also generates new
hypotheses and integrates numerous findings into a coherent whole.
oTheories are general principles or explanation of some aspect of the world.
oBuilt from hypothesis that are repeated tested and confirmed.
•Theories are not same thing as opinions or beliefs
•All theories are not equally plausible
•A measure of a good theory is not the number of people who believe it to be true.
•Biopsychosocial model is explaining behavior as a product of biological,
psychological, and sociocultural factors.
•Biological influences on our behavior involve brain structures and chemicals,
hormones, external substances such as drugs.
•Psychosocial influence our memories, emotions and personalities.
•Scientific literacy is the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific
oInvolves 4 skills
Gathering knowledge about the world
Explaining it using scientific terms and concepts
Using critical thinking
Applying and using information
•Critical thinking involves exercising curiosity and skepticism when evaluating the
claims of others, and with our won assumptions and beliefs.
oExamine the nature and source of the evidence
oExamine assumptions and biases
oAvoid overly emotional thinking
oConsider alternative viewpoints and alternative interpretation of the
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