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Chapter 7

PSYA01 Chapter 7: Chapter 7 Notes.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Chapter
7

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Chapter 7 Notes
7.1
Memory-is a collection of several systems that store info in different forms for diff amount of times.
The Atkinson-shiffrin model
Includes 3 memory stores.
1. Short-term memory (STM)
2. Sensory memory
3. Long-term memory (LTM)
Stores- retain info in memory without using it for any specific purpose.
Control processes- shift info from one memory store to another.
->Info enters the sensory memory store through vision hearing, and other senses. Attention selects which info
will be passed onto STM
->Some info in the STM goes through Encoding.
Encoding- is the process of storing info in the LTM system.
Retrieval- brings info from LTM back into STM.
-> Retrieval happens when you become aware of the existing memories. Like when you remember the movie
you watched last week.
Sensory memory
Sensory memory- is a memory store that accurately holds perceptual info for a very brief amount of time.
Iconic memory- is the visual form of sensory memory.
oHeld for about one-half to one second.
Echoic memory- is the auditory form of sensory memory.
oHeld for about 5 seconds.
-> sensory memory can disappear faster than an individual can report them.
-> Attention allows us to move a small amount of info from our sensory memory into STM for further
processing.
Known as “spotlight of attention”
Change blindness- if the item or change Is not the focus of attention, people generally fail to notice the
change.
One version of the changing item fades from the sensory memory just as the next appears.
Short-Term Memory (STM)
STM- is a memory store with limited capacity and duration (less then 1 minute or 30-60 secs)
STM can rehearse only 7 units of info at once before forgetting something.
-> Whenever possible we expand our memory capacity with chunking
Chunking- is organizing smaller units of info into larger, more meaningful units.
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Long-Term memory (LTM)
Not all the info that enters STM is stored because a large proportion of it is lost forever.
Only a small amount of info from STM is encoded or transferred into memory trace.
Encoding allows the info to enter final memory store in the Atkinson-shiffrin model
LTM- holds info for extended periods of time, if not permanently.
LTM has no capacity limitation.
Some suggest that the way things are stored in the LTM are the semantically related items
are all stored near each other.
LTM is also organized based on the sounds of the word and on how the word looks.
Tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomenon- when you are able to retrieve similar sounding words or words
that start with the same letter but cant really retrieve the word you actually want.
Serial position effect- in general, most people will recall the first few items from a list and the last few
items and only an item or two form the middle.
Primacy effect- first few items are remembered relatively easily because they have begun
the process of entering LTM.
Recency effect- last few items are remembered well because those items are still within our
STM.
Proactive interference- a process in which the first info learned occupies memory, leaving fewer resources
left to remember the newer info.
Retroactive interference- is the most recently learned info overshadows some older memories that have
not yet made it into long-term memory.
Rehearsal- repeating info until you don’t need to remember it anymore.
Working memory- a model of short-term remembering that includes a combination of memory
components that can temporarily store small amounts of info for a short amount of time.
Working memory model for short term remembering can be subdivided into 3 storage
components.
1. Phonological loops
2. Visuospatical sketchpad
3. Episodic buffer
Can store as many syllables as can be rehearsed in about 2 secs and that this info is retained
for approx..15 secs.
1. Phonological loop
Phonological loop- is a storage component of working memory that relies of rehearsal and
that stores info as sounds or an auditory code.
Engages some portions of the brain that specializes in speech and hearing.
2. Visuospatical Sketchpad
. Visuospatical Sketchpad- is a storage component of working memory that maintains
visual images and spatial layouts in a Visuospatical code.
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