Chapter 8 Memory
Memory involved the process of encoding, storage and retrieval of information.
Encoding involves putting stimulus information in a form that can be used by our memory
Storage involves maintaining it in memory and retrieval involves locating and using it.
Sensory memory stores newly perceived information for very brief periods. Although sensory
memory appears to exist for all senses, visual (iconic) and auditory (echoic) memories have
received the most empirical attention.
OVERVIEW OF MEMORY
Learning is the tendency for behaviour to change as a result of experience; learning reflects the
Memory: the cognitive process of encoding, storing and retrieving information.
Encoding : the process by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be used
by the brains memory system.
Storage: the process of maintaining in memory .
Retrieval is the active process of locating and using stored information.
o Ex: when you choose a restaurant (encoding the location, type of food, and its other
attributes) you later retrieve this information later when you are looking for a place to
Sensory memory : memory where representations of physical features of a stimulation are
stored for very brief durations (a second or less)
o Sensory memory contains a brief image of a sight we have just seen or a fleeting echo of
a sound we just heard. The purpose of sensory memory is to hold information long
enough for it to become part of the next form of memory : short term memory.
Short term memory: an immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived. Its
capacity is limited in the number of items it can store and the duration.
o Information leaves your short term memory, and unless its stored in your long term
memory it will be lost forever.
Sensory input sensory memory short term memory long term memory
- Most of us are not able to remember seven to nine pieces of information that you have only
seen once. Short term memory is in definite terms.
- Long term memory: memory that is represented in a permanent or near permanent basis. Long
term memory presumably occurs because of physical changes that take place in the brain.
- Long term memory doesn’t need to be rehearsed like short term memory
- Information that we have just perceived remains in sensory memory just long enough for it to
have been stored in short term memory. We become aware of sensory memory when it was
been presented very briefly , so that we can perceive its after effects ( ex: when you see a
thunder storm you see the lightning and hear thunder)
- Iconic memory: a form of sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that has just
been perceived; also known as visible persistence.
- Echoic memory is a form of sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived. It is
necessary for comprehending many sounds, especially those that have to do with speech.
- When we hear a word pronounced, we hear individual sounds, so acoustical information must
be stored temporarily until all sounds have been received.
- Echoic memory holds a representation of the initial sounds until the entire word has been
heard. Although early use of partial – report procedures suggest that echoic memory lasts less
than 4 seconds , more recent evidence employing patterns of random or white noise indicates
that echoic memory can last up to 20 seconds .
SENSORY MEMORY SUMMARY
- Memory exists In three forms : sensory, short term and long term.
- Sensory memory is limited and it provides temporary storage until the newly perceived
information can be stored in short term memory.
- Short term memory contains a representation of information that has just been perceived, such
as an items name. although the capacity of short term memory is limited we can rehearse as
long as we choose, and it will be remembered indefinitely (stored in long term memory)
- Information in sensory memory lasts for a short period of time. The partial report procedure
shows that when a visual stimulus is presented in a brief flash, all of the information is available
for a short period of time.
- If the viewers attention is directed to one line of information within a few milliseconds of the
flash, the information can be transferred into short term memory.
Short term working memory
Encoding of Information in the short term: interaction with Long term memory
- Rehearsal process keeps the information in short term memory long enough for it to be
transferred into long term memory.
- When you look at the letters P X L MR you are able to remember it because you stored that
information about the alphabet in your long term memory, which made the process of
remembering the order a lot easier.
- Information can enter short term memory from two directions : from sensory memory or from
long term memory.
o When you are multiply with 7 and 19 we need to retrieve information from our short
and long term memory. (how to multiply, and what numbers, etc. )
- The fact that short term memory contains both information retrieved from long term memory
has lead to the use of working memory.
- Working memory represents the work that happens in our heads. It is memory for new
information and information retrieved from long term memory; another term for short term
o We use it to: remember what a person says at the beginning of a sentence until we hear
the end, to think about what we already know and to come to conclusions on the basis
of this knowledge.
Primary and Recency Effects
- free recall task: asked to listen to someone read a list of words , and then write down the words
that you remember.
- Recency : the tendency to recall later information. You remember the words at the end of the