Chapter 1

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Published on 25 Feb 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Chapter 1: the Science of Psychology
concept of intelligence: once we find out how it works, then the magic is gone and
it’s notintelligence” anymore
ANIMISM: belief that all animals and moving objects have spirits that provide
their motive force (i.e. humans attribute soul to almost anything, ex tornado)
Decartes: determined that hydraulic and mechanical things can move (doesn’t
have to have a soul)
Decartes Model: (hydraulics) when mind performs an action, pineal body tilts in
specific direction, making fluid flow from brain to appropriate nerves
maybe human body is mechanical puppet of the soul?
DUALISM: philosophical belief that reality consists of mind and matter (i.e. we
are machine and spirit)
EMPIRICISM: philosophical view that all knowledge is obtained through senses
John Locke: all knowledge acquired through knowledge alone
onature vs. nurture: Locke believed in nurture
MATERIALISM: mind is a machine
oJames Mill: materialism extremist, anti-soul, we are 100% material
shift from animism (physical matter animated by spirits) to Materialism (mind
composed of matter)
muscles can be made to contract by applying an electrical current
not hydraulics that makes us move, electricity
oDOCTRINE OF SPECIFIC NERVE ENERGIES: Johannes Muller’s
observation that different nerve fibres convey specific info from one part
of the body to the brain or vice versa
result of removing a part of the brain depends on which part is
removed (experimental ablation)
Paul Broca: did autopsy on man who died of stroke, discovered
that stroke damages centre for speech in brain
body appeared to be mapped on brain
WILHELM WUNDT: first psychologist, structuralism
obelieved that via introspection (literally looking within), one could come
to understand the ideas and sensations
Freud:
medical perspective, interested in behavioural and emotional problems, based on
observation of patients
beginning of clinical psychology and psychiatry
what motivates us to do the things we do? Primitive motivations
we need comfort, love, touch, shelter, food, water… some of these needs are
controversial in society, so we have to find ways, either positive (art, music) or
negative ways to satisfy our needs
seen as non-scientific but popular because of his provocativeness
www.notesolution.com
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