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PSYA01H3 (1,329)
Chapter 14-18

Chapters 14-18

25 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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Psychology Chapter Notes
Chapter 14 personality
Personality: a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking prevailing across time and
situations that differentiates one person from another
Trait theories
Hippocrates first explanation of traits
oHad to do with predominance of the 4 humours in the body
Chloric increase of yellow bile tempered and irritable
Melancholic increase of black bile gloomy and pessimistic
Phlematic increase of phlem sluggish and calm
Sanguine increase of blood cheerful and passionate
Personality types: different categories into which personality characteristics can be
assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences
oThe idea that people can be assigned to distinct categories is rejected today
by most investigators
Personality trait: an enduring personality characteristic that reveals itself in a
particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations
Gordon Allport
oLooked for words in a dictionary that described personality
oFound about 18 000
oBelieve people with particular trait react similarly across situations because
feel unique sense of similarity that guides feelings
Catell: sixteen personality factors
oDid factor analysis on allport and found 16 different personality traits
Eysenck: three factors
oDid further factor analysis
3 main factors extroversion(opposite: introversion),neuroticism
(opposite: emotional stability), psychoticism (opposite: self control)
Extroversion: the tendency to seek the company of other people, to be
spontaneous and to engage in conversation and other social behaviours
with them
Introversion: the tendency to avoid the company of other people to be
inhibited and cautious, shyness
Neuroticism: the tendency to be anxious, worried and full of guilt
Emotional stability: the tendency to be relaxed and at peace with
oneself
Psychoticism: the tendency to be aggressive, egocentric and antisocial.
Self control: the tendency to be kind, considerate and obedient of laws.
The 5 factor model
1
www.notesolution.com
oA theory stating that personality is composed of 5 primary dimensions,
neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and consciousness
oNeuroticism, extraversion , and openness personality inventory (NEO-PI-R):
the instrument used to measure the elements described in the five factor
model
Psychobiological approach
Heritability of personality traits
oMany studies have shown some personality traits are highly heritable
oIdentical twins are more likely to like each other than fraternal (concordance)
oZuckerman: heritability of extroversion 70%, psychoticism 59%, neuroticism
48%
oIf family environment played a significant part, twins raised together should
be more similar than if they were raised apart WERE NOT!
2 possible explanations family environments could have been more
similar for identical twins or could have been perceived as different for
fraternal twins
oBrain mechanisms involved in personality
oZuckerman: personality dimensions of extraversion determined by neural
systems
oKagan: shyness could have a biological basis
The social learning approach
The idea that both consequences of behaviour and an individuals beliefs about those
consequences determine behaviour.
Expectancy: the belief that a certain consequence will follow a certain action
Observative learning: learning through observing the kinds of consequences others
(called models) experience as a result of their behaviour
oLearn vicariously
Bandura: self efficacy
oReciprocal determination: the idea that behaviour, environment and person
variables interact to determine personality
Everything affects everything
oSelf efficacy: people beliefs about how well or how badly they will perform
Seligman & schuluman: found people who find something positive in less desirable
circumstances are generally more successful than those who view it negatively
Walter Michel: personality learned through interaction with environment
oRole of cognition
oMichel argues that individual different in cognition or person variables
account for differences in personality
oPersonal variables: individual differences in cognition, which according to
Michel, include competencies encoding strategies, personal constructs,
expectancies, subjective values, self regulatory systems and plans.
Competencies: different skills, capacities perform ones that were
reinforced earlier
2
www.notesolution.com
Encoding strategies and personal constructs: way we process depends
on how were perceive the situation
Expectancies: what we expect affects behaviour
Subjective values: the degree to which we value certain reinforcers
over others influence our behaviours
Self regulatory systems: self punishment and self reinforcement
Julien rotter: locus of control
oLocus of control: an individuals belief that the consequences of his or her
actions are controlled by internal personal variables or by external
environmental variables
Social learning theorists put more emphasis on environmental traits
oMichel says party for funeral, vs. birthday situation is important in
determining extroversion
The psychodynamic approach
Psychodynamic: a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is in a
state of conflict among instincts, reason and conscience
Sigmund Freud: ID EGO SUPEREGO
oInstinctual drives are triggered by events in a persons life
oTo understands a persons personality, must tap into unconscious
oPersonality determined by conscious and unconscious powers
oStructure of mind:
Unconscious: mental events which we are not aware
Conscious: mental events which we are aware
Pre-conscious: mental events that may become conscious through
effort
oID: the unconscious reservoir of the libido, the psychic energy that fuels
instincts and psychic processes
oLibido: an insistent instinctual force that is unresponsive to the demands of
reality
oPleasure principle: the rule that the ID obeys: obtain immediate gratification,
whatever form it may take
oEgo: the ego also serves as the general manager of personality, making
decisions regarding the pleasures perceived by the ID and the morals of the
superego
oReality principle: involves compromising the demands of the ID and the
super-ego
oSuperego: individuals morals divided into the conscious- societies rules and
regulations
oConscience: internalization of the rules and restrictions of society
oEgo- ideal: persons internalized goals or ambitions
oCompromised formation between the demands of the ID and suppression of
the superego
oManifest content: the apparent story line of a dream
3
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Psychology Chapter Notes Chapter 14 personality Personality: a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking prevailing across time and situations that differentiates one person from another Trait theories Hippocrates first explanation of traits o Had to do with predominance of the 4 humours in the body Chloric increase of yellow bile tempered and irritable Melancholic increase of black bile gloomy and pessimistic Phlematic increase of phlem sluggish and calm Sanguine increase of blood cheerful and passionate Personality types: different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences o The idea that people can be assigned to distinct categories is rejected today by most investigators Personality trait: an enduring personality characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations Gordon Allport o Looked for words in a dictionary that described personality o Found about 18 000 o Believe people with particular trait react similarly across situations because feel unique sense of similarity that guides feelings Catell: sixteen personality factors o Did factor analysis on allport and found 16 different personality traits Eysenck: three factors o Did further factor analysis 3 main factors extroversion(opposite: introversion),neuroticism (opposite: emotional stability), psychoticism (opposite: self control) Extroversion: the tendency to seek the company of other people, to be spontaneous and to engage in conversation and other social behaviours with them Introversion: the tendency to avoid the company of other people to be inhibited and cautious, shyness Neuroticism: the tendency to be anxious, worried and full of guilt Emotional stability: the tendency to be relaxed and at peace with oneself Psychoticism: the tendency to be aggressive, egocentric and antisocial. Self control: the tendency to be kind, considerate and obedient of laws. The 5 factor model 1 www.notesolution.com o A theory stating that personality is composed of 5 primary dimensions, neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and consciousness o Neuroticism, extraversion , and openness personality inventory (NEO-PI-R): the instrument used to measure the elements described in the five factor model Psychobiological approach Heritability of personality traits o Many studies have shown some personality traits are highly heritable o Identical twins are more likely to like each other than fraternal (concordance) o Zuckerman: heritability of extroversion 70%, psychoticism 59%, neuroticism 48% o If family environment played a significant part, twins raised together should be more similar than if they were raised apart WERE NOT! 2 possible explanations family environments could have been more similar for identical twins or could have been perceived as different for fraternal twins o Brain mechanisms involved in personality o Zuckerman: personality dimensions of extraversion determined by neural systems o Kagan: shyness could have a biological basis The social learning approach The idea that both consequences of behaviour and an individuals beliefs about those consequences determine behaviour. Expectancy: the belief that a certain consequence will follow a certain action Observative learning: learning through observing the kinds of consequences others (called models) experience as a result of their behaviour o Learn vicariously Bandura: self efficacy o Reciprocal determination: the idea that behaviour, environment and person variables interact to determine personality Everything affects everything o Self efficacy: people beliefs about how well or how badly they will perform Seligman & schuluman: found people who find something positive in less desirable circumstances are generally more successful than those who view it negatively Walter Michel: personality learned through interaction with environment o Role of cognition o Michel argues that individual different in cognition or person variables account for differences in personality o Personal variables: individual differences in cognition, which according to Michel, include competencies encoding strategies, personal constructs, expectancies, subjective values, self regulatory systems and plans. Competencies: different skills, capacities perform ones that were reinforced earlier 2 www.notesolution.com Encoding strategies and personal constructs: way we process depends on how were perceive the situation Expectancies: what we expect affects behaviour Subjective values: the degree to which we value certain reinforcers over others influence our behaviours Self regulatory systems: self punishment and self reinforcement Julien rotter: locus of control o Locus of control: an individuals belief that the consequences of his or her actions are controlled by internal personal variables or by external environmental variables Social learning theorists put more emphasis on environmental traits o Michel says party for funeral, vs. birthday situation is important in determining extroversion The psychodynamic approach Psychodynamic: a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is in a state of conflict among instincts, reason and conscience Sigmund Freud: ID EGO SUPEREGO o Instinctual drives are triggered by events in a persons life o To understands a persons personality, must tap into unconscious o Personality determined by conscious and unconscious powers o Structure of mind: Unconscious: mental events which we are not aware Conscious: mental events which we are aware Pre-conscious: mental events that may become conscious through effort o ID: the unconscious reservoir of the libido, the psychic energy that fuels instincts and psychic processes o Libido: an insistent instinctual force that is unresponsive to the demands of reality o Pleasure principle: the rule that the ID obeys: obtain immediate gratification, whatever form it may take o Ego: the ego also serves as the general manager of personality, making decisions regarding the pleasures perceived by the ID and the morals of the superego o Reality principle: involves compromising the demands of the ID and the super-ego o Superego: individuals morals divided into the conscious- societies rules and regulations o Conscience: internalization of the rules and restrictions of society o Ego- ideal: persons internalized goals or ambitions o Compromised formation between the demands of the ID and suppression of the superego o Manifest content: the apparent story line of a dream 3 www.notesolution.com o Latent content: hidden message of the dream Freud all about latent content of dream o Free association: a method of freud, report feelings images etc that come to mind o Defence mechanisms: according the Freud, the Ego contains defence mechanisms Defence mechanisms: mental systems that become active whenever the unconscious instinctual drives of the ID came into contact with the internalized prohibitions of the mind Types: Repression: mental force actively keeping potentially threatening or anxiety provoking memories from being consciously discovered Reaction formation: involves acting in a way that is opposite to how one feels because their true feelings provoke anxiety Projection: a defence mechanism in which ones unacceptable thoughts or behaviours are attributed to someone else Sublimation: a defence mechanism that involves redirecting pressure seeking or aggressive instincts towards societal accepted goals Rationalization: justifies an unacceptable action with a more acceptable but false excuse o Freuds psychosexual theory of personality development: Believes personality development involves passing
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