PSYA02 Textbook Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 12
and articles. When they are omitted, we can often guess at
•Content words: express meaning such as nouns and verbs.
•Content words express meaning and function words express the
relationships between the content words.
Affixes: Sounds we add to beginning (prefix) or ends (suffix) of words.
Adding affixes to nonsense words make them seems more like
Semantics: the meaning represented by words.
Prosody: using changes in intonation and emphasis to convey
meaning in speech. Important for emotion. In writing, syntactical
clues and interfere with prosody producing brain activity similar to
that of unexpected experiences.
•Syntax is necessary but not sufficient for semantics. Things can make syntactical
sense but we may not extract meaning from it. Likewise, semantics requires syntax
for the entire picture.
•We remember what is meant in sentences but quickly forget their form. Chomsky
(linguist) suggested a model:
oDeep structure is the essential meanings of a sentence. It is converted to
speech by adding surface structure (grammatical features).
oThis model is not generally accepted by psychologists.
•Aphasia: loss of language, recognition or comprehension or both.
oConduction aphasia: difficulty repeating words and phrases, but they are
comprehended. Retain deep structure but not surface structure.
•Pragmatics is knowledge of the world. Used in conversations and is involved in
speech comprehension. Scripts: characteristics of typical situations that assist in
comprehending a verbal discourse. A conversation can bring up certain scripts in
the listener so the speaker can convey information without all the gritty details.
•Areas important for speech:
oBroca’s area: motor association cortex in left frontal lobe. Speech production
occurs here. Sign language users also show activity in this area, meaning it
is for more than just speech production.
Damage here (extending to underlying white matter) causes Broca’s
aphasia which involves severe difficulty articulating words, especially
•Agrammatism: inability to properly use or comprehend
function words and grammatical features.
•Comprehension of word order, for example, is affected in