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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - Learning and Behaviour

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Chapter 7: Learning and Behaviour
Habituation
- Learning: Then process where the tendency to perform a particular task is changed
through experience (ONLY INFERRED THROUGH BEHAVIOUR)
- Experiences alter the structure and chemistry of the brain; they eventually effect how the
nervous system responds to events
Performance: Behavioural change accompanied learning 3 TYPES OF LEARNING:
Habitual, Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning
1) Habituation: Simplest form of learning: Learning NOT to respond to unimportant event
that occurs repeatedly (If it is not worth noticing/neutral, IGNORE it)
- Sometimes people respond automatically to events (i.e. ducking, blinking, a sudden noise
makes an orienting response: response where organism directs appropriate sensory organ
to stimulus)
- George Humphrey (1933) looked into habituation by conducting simple experiment -->
land snails on glass plate, Rankin and colleagues (2005) and work from Nematoda
- Simplest form of habituation is TEMPORARY - short-term habituation, animals have
complex systems and are capable of long-term habituation
- What is the difference? The pattern of experience plays a role Stimuli is massed in
quick repetitions, habituations is rapid but short term wile when stimuli is present in small
groups but spaced in time, habituation is slow but long term
Classical Conditioning
2) Classical Conditioning: Process where response normally elicited from one stimulus
(Unconditional Stimulus/UCS) is controlled by another stimulus (Conditional Stimulus/CS)
- Some experiences have been conditioned into certain things (i.e. in movies, we've been
conditioned to certain music motifs that were once neutral sounds)
- In December 1904, Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning/Pavlovian Conditioning,
used dogs --> researcher rings a bell and presents the food, saliva is collected, dog is
eventually conditioned to salivate without presence of food and just the bell
Unconditional Stimulus (UCS): Stimulus that naturally elicits a reflexive response (i.e.
food --> salivation)
www.notesolution.com
Unconditional Response (UR): Response that is naturally elicited by UCS
Conditional Stimulus (CS): Stimulus that because of repeated association of UCR, elicits
a conditional response (CS)
Conditional Response(CR): Response elicited by CS
- Functions of Classical Conditioning: The ability to learn small stimuli that predict the
occurrence of important event allowing faster and more effective response, to modify
behaviour
- Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning
1) Acquisition: Time during which CR first appears and increases in frequency
2) Extinction: The elimination of response that occurs when CS is repeatedly presented
without being follow by UCS
3) Spontaneous Recovery: After some time, reappearance of response that previously
occurred stops
4) Stimulus Generalization: CRs elicited by stimuli that resemble the CS used in
training
5) Discrimination: The appearance of CR when one stimulus is presented (CS+) but not
the another (CS-)
- Many stimuli are able to arouse emotional responses (i.e. disgust, contempt, fear, anger,
sadness, tenderness, longing, sexual desire), shown through Todrank, Byrnes,
Wrzesniewski, Rozin (1995)
- Many people are troubled by behaviours that are controlled by fears (Phobia:
Unreasonable fear of specific objects or situations learned through classical conditioning
- What is Learned in Classical Conditioning: The CS regularly occurs prior to the presence
of UCS, CS doesn't regularly occur when UCS is absent
Blocking: Prevention/ Attenuation in learning that occurs to neutral CS when it is
conditioned in the presence of a previously conditioned stimulus
Inhibitory Conditional Response: Response tendency conditioned to signal that predicts
absence of UCS (not observed directly but through other tests)
Excitatory Conditional Response: Response tendency conditioned to a signal by UCS
about to occur (i.e. Pavlov's experiment)
Operant Conditioning
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 7: Learning and Behaviour Habituation - Learning: Then process where the tendency to perform a particular task is changed through experience (ONLY INFERRED THROUGH BEHAVIOUR) - Experiences alter the structure and chemistry of the brain; they eventually effect how the nervous system responds to events Performance: Behavioural change accompanied learning 3 TYPES OF LEARNING: Habitual, Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning 1) Habituation: Simplest form of learning: Learning NOT to respond to unimportant event that occurs repeatedly (If it is not worth noticingneutral, IGNORE it) - Sometimes people respond automatically to events (i.e. ducking, blinking, a sudden noise makes an orienting response: response where organism directs appropriate sensory organ to stimulus) - George Humphrey (1933) looked into habituation by conducting simple experiment --> land snails on glass plate, Rankin and colleagues (2005) and work from Nematoda - Simplest form of habituation is TEMPORARY - short-term habituation, animals have complex systems and are capable of long-term habituation - What is the difference? The pattern of experience plays a role Stimuli is massed in quick repetitions, habituations is rapid but short term wile when stimuli is present in small groups but spaced in time, habituation is slow but long term Classical Conditioning 2) Classical Conditioning: Process where response normally elicited from one stimulus (Unconditional StimulusUCS) is controlled by another stimulus (Conditional StimulusCS) - Some experiences have been conditioned into certain things (i.e. in movies, weve been conditioned to certain music motifs that were once neutral sounds) - In December 1904, Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioningPavlovian Conditioning, used dogs --> researcher rings a bell and presents the food, saliva is collected, dog is eventually conditioned to salivate without presence of food and just the bell Unconditional Stimulus (UCS): Stimulus that naturally elicits a reflexive response (i.e. food --> salivation) www.notesolution.com
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