Textbook Notes (378,200)
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UTSC (19,205)
Psychology (9,977)
PSYA01H3 (1,302)
Steve Joordens (1,140)
Chapter 1

Psychology - Chapter 1

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology
- Psychology (Psukhe: Breathe of Soul, Logos: Word or Reason) The scientific study of
the causes of behaviour, as well as the applications of the finding of psychological
research to the solution of problems
- The goal is to understand human behaviour to explain why people do what they do
(Describe behaviour categorize and measure behaviour, discover the causes of behaviour
=EXPLANATION!); the purpose is due to intellectual curiousity, to solve the root of many
world issues, finding new sciences (to facilitate implications)
- Causal events are events that cause other ones (including behaviour)
- Fields of Psychology:
Physiological Psychology: Studies the role of the brain in behaviour study all
behavioural problems such as learning, memory, sensory process, emotional behaviour,
motivation, sexual behaviour, sleep (i.e. all drugs have the potential for addiction act to
produce pleasurable events
Comparative Psychology: Studies the evolution of behaviour by comparing the
behavioural capacities of different species look at behavioural phenomena,
inherited behavioural patterns, (courting, mating, predation, aggression, defensive
behaviours, parental behaviours) (i.e. all species of mammals reacts like humans to
addictive drugs)
Behaviour Analysis: Studies the effect of environmental events on behaviour,
especially the effects of the consequences of behaviours of behaviours look at learning,
motivation, drug addiction (i.e. developing methods for studying how pleasurable events
lead people to repeat certain behaviours)
Behaviour Genetics: Studies the role of genetics in behaviour (i.e. looks at
drug addiction in lab animals to determine mechanisms on drug dependence(i.e. the
development of
Cognitive Neuroscience: Studies mental processes and complex behaviours 
looks at perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behaviour, concept
formation, problem solving (i.e. assessing behavioural and cognitive deficits cause be
abnormal brain functions)
Developmental Psychology: Studies physical, cognitive, emotional and social
development (i.e. childhood, adolescence, adulthood studying in physiological
processes, cognitive processes and social influences
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Social Psychology: Studies the effects of people on people looks at perception,
cause-and-effect on human interaction, attitudes, opinions, interpersonal relationships,
group dynamics, emotional behaviours (i.e. understand influences of children who try
smoking due to peers and advertisements)
Personality Psychology: Studies individual differences in pattern and
behaviours (i.e. persons likelihood to drug addiction to things such as genetics)
Evolutionary Psychology: Studies and explains cognitive, social and
personality aspects of psychology by looking the evolution of modern species
(i.e. why would species like human do harmful drugs)
Cross-cultural Psychology: Studies impact of culture on behaviour (i.e. the
customs and habits of drug abuse)
Clinical Psychology: Studies and treats abnormal behaviour and psychological
disorders (i.e. the development of therapeutic methods to prevent and treat drug
abuse)
- Philosophical Roots of Psychology: Animism is the belief that all animals and all moving
objects possess spirits/minds or supernatural means
Rene Descartes (RATIONALIST, 1596-1650) believed that the human body, many of
its responses, could be thought of as a highly complex machine, the human possesses a
soul and free will, reflexes are automatic responses to stimuli (Dualism: all reality
can be divided in mind and matter, like a puppet and puppet master)
John Locke (EMPIRCIST, 1632-1704) believed that knowledge/truth could be done
through observation and experience (tabula rasa)
George Berkeley (1685-1753) believed that knowledge of world events require
inferences based on past experiences = PRECEIVE
James Mill (1773-1836) developed materialism: the belief that reality can be known
only through an understanding of the physical world the mind is a machine
- Biological Roots of Psychology:
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) and several frog martyrs supported the notion of the body
as an electric machine (frog legs and electrical impulse due to nerves)
Johannes Muller (1801-1858) applied experimental procedures to physiology, was the
first to study human anatomy and in his Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies that
nerve fibres convey specific information from one part to another (ELECTRICAL
IMPULSE)
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Description
Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology - Psychology (Psukhe: Breathe of Soul, Logos: Word or Reason) The scientific study of the causes of behaviour, as well as the applications of the finding of psychological research to the solution of problems - The goal is to understand human behaviour to explain why people do what they do (Describe behaviour categorize and measure behaviour, discover the causes of behaviour =EXPLANATION!); the purpose is due to intellectual curiousity, to solve the root of many world issues, finding new sciences (to facilitate implications) - Causal events are events that cause other ones (including behaviour) - Fields of Psychology: Physiological Psychology: Studies the role of the brain in behaviour study all behavioural problems such as learning, memory, sensory process, emotional behaviour, motivation, sexual behaviour, sleep (i.e. all drugs have the potential for addiction act to produce pleasurable events Comparative Psychology: Studies the evolution of behaviour by comparing the behavioural capacities of different species look at behavioural phenomena, inherited behavioural patterns, (courting, mating, predation, aggression, defensive behaviours, parental behaviours) (i.e. all species of mammals reacts like humans to addictive drugs) Behaviour Analysis: Studies the effect of environmental events on behaviour, especially the effects of the consequences of behaviours of behaviours look at learning, motivation, drug addiction (i.e. developing methods for studying how pleasurable events lead people to repeat certain behaviours) Behaviour Genetics: Studies the role of genetics in behaviour (i.e. looks at drug addiction in lab animals to determine mechanisms on drug dependence(i.e. the development of Cognitive Neuroscience: Studies mental processes and complex behaviours looks at perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behaviour, concept formation, problem solving (i.e. assessing behavioural and cognitive deficits cause be abnormal brain functions) Developmental Psychology: Studies physical, cognitive, emotional and social development (i.e. childhood, adolescence, adulthood studying in physiological processes, cognitive processes and social influences www.notesolution.com
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