Textbook Notes (378,782)
CA (167,282)
UTSC (19,212)
Psychology (9,983)
PSYA01H3 (1,302)
Steve Joordens (1,140)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Biology of Behaviour

6 Pages
130 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Chapter 4 Biology of Behaviour
Brain and its Components
Contains 10-100 billion nerve cells, many helper cells (care for support and house-keeping functions)
Donald Hebb thought nerve cells were organized into larger subunits to generate higher processes
such as thinking
Structure of Nervous System
Central Nervous System
(CNS): Brain and Spine
Spinal Cord: Long, thin
collection of nerve cells
attached to base of brain and
running the length of the spinal
column, covered by a vertebrae
(one of the bones that encases
the spinal cord and constitutes the bertebral column)
Brain and spinal cord are covered by meninges (3-layered set of membranes that enclose the brain
and spinal cord) disease meningitis, brain and spinal cord float on cerebrospinal fluid
(CSF) (Liquid where the CNS floats on and provides shock-absorbing cushion)
Transfer of chemical is the blood-brain barrier (barrier between blood and brain produced by
capillary cells that prevent some substances from entering the brain)
CNS consists of grey matter (parts of CNS that are abundant in cell bodies of neurons rather
than axons) and white matter (parts of CNS that are abundant in axons rather than neurons))
Brain has 3 functions: controlling behaviour, processing and retaining information,
regulating processes, has 3 parts:
1.Brain Stem: Stem of brain that controls physiological functions and automatic behaviours,
the 3 parts are:
Medulla: Closest to the spinal cord, controls vital functions such as heart rate and blood pressure
Pons: Anterior (front) to medulla. Involved in sleep control
Midbrain: Anterior to pons; involved in control of fighting and sexual behaviour and sensitivity to pain
2.Cerebral Hemisphere: Largest part of the brain that is covered by cerebral cortex and
contains parts of the brain that evolved most recently, covered by cerebral cortex (outer layer
of cerebral hemisphere, approx. 3mm thick)
- Organization of Cerebral Cortex:
Anterior: Toward the front
www.notesolution.com
Posterior: Toward the back
Frontal Lobe: Front portion of cerebral cortex, including Brocas speech area and motor cortex
contains primary motor cortex (directly controsl movements of body, located at the posterior),
damage impairs movement, planning and behavioural strategies
Parietal Lobe: Region of cerebral cortex behind frontal lobe and above temporal lobe; contains
somatosensory cortex (receives information from somatosensory sytesm such as touch, pressure,
vibration, pain and temperature) and is involved in spatial perception and memory damage to the
left side means disrupting the ability to read or write while the impairment to the right side disrupts
a persons ability to pay attention to stimuli on the left side of the body Daage to the primary motor
cortex means paralysis on the side opposite to where the brain damage was caused, damage to eh
prefrontal cortex can cause slowing of thoughts and behaviour and loss of spontaniety, preservation
(difficulty changing strategies), loss of self-awareness and changes to emotional reactions and
deficiencies in foresight and planning
Temporal Lobe - Somatosensation and Spatial Perception: Portion of cerebral cortex below frontal
and parietal lobe contains auditory cortex (receives information from auditory system) damage to
the left side cause severe language deficits while the right side affects speech perception and
production and the ability to recognize non-speech sounds, perceive the location of sounds
Occiptal Lobe: Rearmost portion of cerebral cortex contains primary visual cortex (receives
information from visual system) deficit in visual perception is visual agnosia: Inability for a person
whos not blind to recognize the identity or use of the object through vision (usually damage to the
brain)
Contralateral: Residing in side of body opposite the reference point -Lateralization of Function:
Some functions are lateralized (located on one side of the brain) left hemisphere is good for
recognizing serial events while the right hemisphere is specialized for synthesis (putting isolate
elements together)
Sensory Association Cortex: Region of cerebral cortex that receives information from primary
sensory areas
Prefrontal Cortex: Anterior part of frontal that contains motor association cortex (controls primary
motor cortex that is involved in planning and executing behaviour)
Corpus Callosum: Large bundle of axons (white matter) that connects the cortex of 2 cerebral
hemispheres
Cerebellum: Pair of hemispheres resembling cerebral hemispheres but much smaller and beneath them;
controls posture and movements (exp. Rapid ones) Very important in movement as it receives sensory
information and position of body parts, the 3 parts are:
1.Thalamus: Located in the heart of the cerebral hemisphere, all sensory information except
smell is sent her and then the cerebral cortex
2.Hypothalamus: Located just above pituitary gland, controls autonomic nervous systems and
behaviours (i.e. eating, drinking, fighting) controls the pituitary gland (endocrine gland
attached to hypothalamus)
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 4 Biology of Behaviour Brain and its Components Contains 10-100 billion nerve cells, many helper cells (care for support and house-keeping functions) Donald Hebb thought nerve cells were organized into larger subunits to generate higher processes such as thinking Structure of Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain and Spine Spinal Cord: Long, thin collection of nerve cells attached to base of brain and running the length of the spinal column, covered by a vertebrae (one of the bones that encases the spinal cord and constitutes the bertebral column) Brain and spinal cord are covered by meninges (3-layered set of membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord) disease meningitis, brain and spinal cord float on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (Liquid where the CNS floats on and provides shock-absorbing cushion) Transfer of chemical is the blood-brain barrier (barrier between blood and brain produced by capillary cells that prevent some substances from entering the brain) CNS consists of grey matter (parts of CNS that are abundant in cell bodies of neurons rather than axons) and white matter (parts of CNS that are abundant in axons rather than neurons)) Brain has 3 functions: controlling behaviour, processing and retaining information, regulating processes, has 3 parts: 1. Brain Stem: Stem of brain that controls physiological functions and automatic behaviours, the 3 parts are: Medulla: Closest to the spinal cord, controls vital functions such as heart rate and blood pressure Pons: Anterior (front) to medulla. Involved in sleep control Midbrain: Anterior to pons; involved in control of fighting and sexual behaviour and sensitivity to pain 2. Cerebral Hemisphere: Largest part of the brain that is covered by cerebral cortex and contains parts of the brain that evolved most recently, covered by cerebral cortex (outer layer of cerebral hemisphere, approx. 3mm thick) - Organization of Cerebral Cortex: Anterior: Toward the front www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit