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Chapter 2

chapter 2 study guide

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Chapter 2: The Ways and Means of Psychology
The Scientific Method in Psychology
-Set of rules that dictate the general procedure a scientist must follow in his or her research.
-Three major types of scientific research is done
oNaturalistic observation and clinical observation
Observation of people or animals in their natural environment or while they are
undergoing treatment or diagnosis for a psychological condition.
Least formal method
Foundation of biological and social sciences
oCorrelational studies
Observational in natural but has a more formal measurement of environmental
events of individuals physical and social characteristics and of their behaviour
oExperiments
Beyond measurement
Makes things happen and observes the results
-Scientific Method:
1)Identify the problem and formulate a hypothetical cause and effect relationship
among variables
2)Design the experiment
3)Perform the experiment
4)Evaluate the hypothesis by examining the data from the study.
5)Communicate the results.
- Identifying the Problem: Getting an Idea for Research
oHypothesis: starting point of any study
An idea, phrased as a general statement
www.notesolution.com
Tentative statement about a cause and effect relation between two or more events
oTheories: set of statements that describes and explains known facts, proposes relations
among variables, and makes new predictions.
good theory is one that generates testable hypotheses
oNaturalistic and Clinical Observations as Sources of Hypotheses and Theories
To understand human behaviour or other animals behaviours, we first have to
know something about that behaviour
Naturalists: people that observe animals in their natural environment without
disturbing them (i.e. Jane Goodall)
Case studies: detailed description of an individuals behaviour during the course
of clinical treatment or diagnosis.
Survey study: researchers ask people specially designed and controlled
questions, i.e. about their beliefs, opinions, or attitudes
-Designing an Experiment
oVariables: things that vary in value
Scientists either manipulate or measure the values of variables
There would be two groups:
Experimental group
Control group (wont get to experience what experimental group
experiences)
Independent variable: variable that is manipulated
Dependent variable: variable that we measure
-Performing an Experiment
oReliability of measurements
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 2: The Ways and Means of Psychology The Scientific Method in Psychology - Set of rules that dictate the general procedure a scientist must follow in his or her research. - Three major types of scientific research is done o Naturalistic observation and clinical observation Observation of people or animals in their natural environment or while they are undergoing treatment or diagnosis for a psychological condition. Least formal method Foundation of biological and social sciences o Correlational studies Observational in natural but has a more formal measurement of environmental events of individuals physical and social characteristics and of their behaviour o Experiments Beyond measurement Makes things happen and observes the results - Scientific Method: 1) Identify the problem and formulate a hypothetical cause and effect relationship among variables 2) Design the experiment 3) Perform the experiment 4) Evaluate the hypothesis by examining the data from the study. 5) Communicate the results. - Identifying the Problem: Getting an Idea for Research o Hypothesis: starting point of any study An idea, phrased as a general statement www.notesolution.com Tentative statement about a cause and effect relation between two or more events o Theories: set of statements that describes and explains known facts, proposes relations among variables, and makes new predictions. good theory is one that generates testable hypotheses o Naturalistic and Clinical Observations as Sources of Hypotheses and Theories To understand human behaviour or other animal’s behaviours, we first have to know something about that behaviour Naturalists: people that observe animals in their natural environment without disturbing them (i.e. Jane Goodall) Case studies: detailed description of an individual’s behaviour during the course of clinical treatment or diagnosis. Survey study: researchers ask people specially designed and controlled questions, i.e. about their beliefs, opinions, or attitudes - Designing an Experiment o Variables: things that vary in value Scientists either manipulate or measure the values of variables There would be two groups: • Experimental group • Control group (won’t get to experience what experimental group experiences) Independent variable: variable that is manipulated Dependent variable: variable that we measure - Performing an Experiment o Reliability of measurements www.notesolution.com Procedure deserved by an operational definition that produces consistent results under consistent conditions o Selecting the Participants Random assignment is u
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