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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 study guide

21 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Chapter 4: Biology of Behaviour
The Brain and Its Components
-Structure of the Nervous System
oBrain has three main functions:
Controlling behaviour
Processing and retaining the information we receive from the environment
regulating the body’s physiological process
othe brain receives information from the bodys sense receptors, and it must be connected
with the muscles and glands of the body
othe nervous system has two divisions:
the central nervous system: the brain and the spinal cord
spinal cord has a circuit of nerve cells that control simple reflexes
the peripheral nervous system: nerves which are attached to the spinal cord
and to the base of the brain
sensory information from what is happening in the environment or within
the body is conveyed from sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord
info from the head and neck reach through the cranial nerves
info from the rest of the body reaches through the spinal nerves
ohuman brain has three main parts:
brain stem
one of the most primitive regions of the brain
functions: control of physiological functions and automatic behaviours
cerebellum
attached to the back of the brain stem
looks like a mini cerebral hemisphere
function: to control and coordinate movements
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cerebral hemispheres
largest part of the brain
contains the parts of the brain that evolved most recently
obrain is encased in a skill and the spinal cord runs through the middle of a column of
hollow bones known as vertebrae
oboth the brain and spinal cord are enclosed by a three layer set of membranes called
meninges
there is a clear liquid called cerebrospinal fluid that flows between the meninges
so the brain and spinal cord can get in contact with the bones of the skull and
vertebrae
othe surface of the cerebral hemispheres is covered by the cerebral cortex
thin layer of tissue approx. 3 mm thick
often referred to as grey matter (because of appearance)
the nerve cells in the cerebral cortex are connected by a layer of nerve fibres
called white matter
very wrinkled and full of bulges and grooves
bulges are called gyri
grooves called fissures
othe peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that connect to the central nervous
system
nerves carry both incoming and outgoing information
sense organs detect changes in the environment and send signals through the
nerves to the central nervous system
brain sends signals through the nerves to the muscles and the glands producing
adjustments in internal physiological processes
-Cells of the Nervous System
oNeurons (nerve cells) are the elements of the nervous system that bring sensory
information to the brain, store memories, reach decisions, and control the activity of the
muscles.
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Can receive information from other neurons, process this information and
communicate the processed information to other neurons
Contain structures specialized for receiving, processing and transmitting
information
Glia: hold neurons in place
During the development of the brain, some types of glial cells form long
fibres which help it develop neurons
Manufactures chemicals that neurons need to perform tasks
Absorbs chemicals that might impair a neurons functioning
Some form protective insulating sheaths around nerve fibers
Some serve as brains immune system protecting it from invading
organisms
Dendrites: tree like growths attached to the body of a nerve cell
Receives messages from other neurons
Transmits the information they receive down their trunks to the cell body
Soma: cell body
Largest part of the neuron
Contains the mechanisms that control the metabolism and maintenance
of the cell
Soma also receives messages from other neurons
Axon: (nerve fibre)
Carries messages away from the soma towards the cells with which the
neuron communicates
oThese messages are called action potentials
Terminal buttons: axons end
Located at the ends of the twigs that branch off from their ends
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Description
Chapter 4: Biology of Behaviour The Brain and Its Components - Structure of the Nervous System o Brain has three main functions: Controlling behaviour Processing and retaining the information we receive from the environment regulating the bodys physiological process o the brain receives information from the bodys sense receptors, and it must be connected with the muscles and glands of the body o the nervous system has two divisions: the central nervous system: the brain and the spinal cord spinal cord has a circuit of nerve cells that control simple reflexes the peripheral nervous system: nerves which are attached to the spinal cord and to the base of the brain sensory information from what is happening in the environment or within the body is conveyed from sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord info from the head and neck reach through the cranial nerves info from the rest of the body reaches through the spinal nerves o human brain has three main parts: brain stem one of the most primitive regions of the brain functions: control of physiological functions and automatic behaviours cerebellum attached to the back of the brain stem looks like a mini cerebral hemisphere function: to control and coordinate movements www.notesolution.com cerebral hemispheres largest part of the brain contains the parts of the brain that evolved most recently o brain is encased in a skill and the spinal cord runs through the middle of a column of hollow bones known as vertebrae o both the brain and spinal cord are enclosed by a three layer set of membranes called meninges there is a clear liquid called cerebrospinal fluid that flows between the meninges so the brain and spinal cord can get in contact with the bones of the skull and vertebrae o the surface of the cerebral hemispheres is covered by the cerebral cortex thin layer of tissue approx. 3 mm thick often referred to as grey matter (because of appearance) the nerve cells in the cerebral cortex are connected by a layer of nerve fibres called white matter very wrinkled and full of bulges and grooves bulges are called gyri grooves called fissures o the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that connect to the central nervous system nerves carry both incoming and outgoing information sense organs detect changes in the environment and send signals through the nerves to the central nervous system brain sends signals through the nerves to the muscles and the glands producing adjustments in internal physiological processes - Cells of the Nervous System o Neurons (nerve cells) are the elements of the nervous system that bring sensory information to the brain, store memories, reach decisions, and control the activity of the muscles. www.notesolution.com
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