PSYA01H3 Chapter 1: Chapter 2

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4 Aug 2016
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Chapter 2
Objective measurements The measure of an entity or behaviour that, within an allowed
margin of error, is consisted across instruments and observers
Variable The object, event or concept being measured
Operational definitions Statements that describe the procedures (or operations) and
specific measures that are used to record observations
Validity The degree to which an instrument or procedure actually measures
what it claims to measure
Reliability When it provides consistent and stable answers across multiple
observations and point in time
Generalizability Refers to the degree to which one set of results can be applied to
other situations, individuals or events
Population The group that researchers want to generalize about
Sample A selected group of population members
Random sample A sampling technique in which every individual of a population
has an equal chance of being included
Convenience samples Samples of individuals who are most readily available
Ecological validity Meaning that the results of a laboratory study can be applied to or
repeated in the natural environment
Hawthorne effect A behaviour change that occurs as a result of being observed
Demand characteristics Inadvertent cues given off by the experimenter or the experimental
context that provide information about how participants are
expected to behave
Social desirability Research participants respond in ways that increase the chance that
they will be viewed favourably
Placebo effect A measurable and experienced improvement in health or
behaviour that cannot be attributable to a medication or treatment
Single blind study The participants do now know the true purpose of the study, or
else do not know which type of treatment they are receiving
Double blind study A study in which neither the participant nor the experimenter
knows the exact treatment for any individual
Peer review A process in which papers submitted for publication in scholarly
journals are read and critiqued by experts in the specific field of
study
Replication The process of repeating a study and finding a similar outcome
each time
Falsifiable The hypothesis is precise enough that it could be proven false
Anecdotal evidence An individual’s story or testimony about an observation or event
that is used to make a claim as evidence
Appeal to authority The belief in an experts claim event when no supporting data or
scientific evidence is present
Appeal to common sense A claim that appeals to be sound, but lacks supporting scientific
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