Textbook Notes (381,200)
CA (168,393)
UTSC (19,323)
Psychology (10,052)
PSYA01H3 (1,329)
Chapter

its an older date, but they still use this textbook

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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CHAPTER 1- WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
PSYCHOLOGY- A science w/ special focus on behaviour; broad discipline, scientific investigation of behaviour and
mental processes. Its the science of the mind of how we think and act in the world.
Past psychologistPresent psychology
- conceives the mind as an independent free floating
spirit
- focus mind (cannot be observed)
- now the mind is the ultimate function to control
behaviour; independence is now just a characteristic
Focus: behaviour(can be observed) TF the brain is an
organ that contains the mind + controls behaviour
In order to study behaviour and to provide an explanation
Our behaviour is the root of many problems: poverty, crime, drug addiction, war, internal/external problems
Example: depressed teenager
1st step
Describe behaviour (emotions, what are emotions? So many definitions)
Become familiar w/ what ppl/ animals do (walk down the ST, see truck hit a kid [cause]...OMG
[effect])
Categorize & measure behaviour = TF ensures that different psychologist in diff places are observing
same phenomena before it can be studied (environmentalist view, or organist view)
2nd step
Discover causes of behaviour (cause & effect) if the cause is discovered, its been
explained (what causes ppl to act emotionally?)
Casual event: an event that causes another event to occur
We think our way into our way of thinking
We think our way into our being
But we also act our way into our way of thinking
Example: go to school pissed off, and drag our feet on the floor & act sad
FIELDS OF PSY
Scientist = those who attempt to discover the causes of behaviour
Practitioners= apply knowledge scientists discovered outside the lab
Psychologist= some perform both
*TF psychology= broad b/c it has these 3 fields*
psychologistResearch Psychologist
work in colleges/uni
employed by private or govnt research
labs
investigate diff types of behaviour
analyze diff casual events
EXAMPLE OF THE STOVE RELATES TO PSYCHOLOGY
Operating machine Research psy in human factors
& may look @ various ways we can control the stove element
Humans design experiments and see how we perform based on how we think
make recommendations to manufacturers as to which has better performances w/ less error
Research goal: discover + understand causes of behaviour
Better understanding of behaviour + minds will let us prevent problems or manage them better
*there are paradigms (concepts) out there, ways of seeing the world *
study mental processes
models of human behaviour (ex: environmentalist model-----we react to our environment which affects behaviour)
www.notesolution.com
mind oriented, goal oriented= not just a machine, responsible, free will
Mozart Effect
1993; Mozart Music makes us smarter
Hypothesis: impacts spatial temporal tasks (series of mental rotations in geographical figure w/o an actual model
ex: origami, spatial temporal activity)
Divided in 3 groups [Mozart major mode; fast tempo] [sat in silence] [relaxation w/ background music]
Conclusion: Mozart group performed better by 9 IQ, music makes you smarter + encouraged students to listen to
music @ school in N.A, BUT it wasnt Mozart, music in general makes you feel positive, slightly aroused,
emotions affect cognitive tasks
Field of
psychologyFocus of studyDiscoveries
Physiological
psychology
Physiological basis of behaviour
Ex: pharmacological study (what our body does, how does
drugs affect the way we think and act)
State Dependent Memory : ppl who are in a certain
pharmacological state (drugs) and how these drugs affect the
way we recall & remember stuff
Study all behavioural issues w/ animals *use what they find
in animals and use as model to assume H.B*
Memory// Sensory processes// Emotions// Motivation// Sexual
behaviour// sleep
all drugs that have a
potential for addiction act on
certain systems in the brain
that is involved w/ our rxn to
pleasurable events
Comparative
psychology
compare humans to animals (similarities & diff)
study inherited behaviour patterns (how we mate, parental
behave, aggression)
study behaviour of diff organisms + understand its
behaviour relating to its functions + adaptability + how related
to evolution
Do we function the same as animals? Are their axn same under
influence
all mammal species react
like humans to addictive
drugs
Behavioural
analysis
study effect of environmental influence on behav.
explains H.B & mental processes
interest: learning, motivation, memory
belief: cause for specific behav. Has to do w/ relationship
btw behav + consequent event (behave w/ good outcome = more
repeated than bad outcome = less likely to be repeated)
some neg effects of drugs,
including withdrawal
symptoms are learned (any
new drugs are learnt)
what they discover is used
by psychotherapist as
treatment of ppl w/ addiction
Behaviour
genetics
study role of genetics in behave
examine blood relatives to study genetic behaviour
(physical + beha characteristics)
Similarities, differences? Affect beha?
use lab animals that were
effect by drugs
by comparing sober vs high
animalunderstand body +
drug dependence
Cognitive
psychology
study mental processes of brain w/ its behaviour + mental
processes
(perception, attention, learning/memory, verbal behave,
problem solving, intelligence)
Belief: events that causes beha are involved w/ brain + how we
respond to environmental events
developed therapeutic
methods for addicts
(found importance in
teaching ppl to coping
strategies to help resist
temptation of drugs)
Cognitive attempt to understand cog psychological function by developed tests that asses
www.notesolution.com

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Description
CHAPTER 1- WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? PSYCHOLOGY- A science w special focus on behaviour; broad discipline, scientific investigation of behaviour and mental processes. Its the science of the mind of how we think and act in the world. Past psychologist Present psychology - conceives the mind as an independent free floating- now the mind is the ultimate function to control behaviour; independence is now just a characteristic spirit - focus mind (cannot be observed) Focus: behaviour(can be observed) TF the brain is an organ that contains the mind + controls behaviour In order to study behaviour and to provide an explanation Our behaviour is the root of many problems: poverty, crime, drug addiction, war, internalexternal problems Example: depressed teenager st 1 step Describe behaviour (emotions, what are emotions? So many definitions) Become familiar w what ppl animals do (walk down the ST, see truck hit a kid [cause]...OMG [effect]) Categorize & measure behaviour = TF ensures that different psychologist in diff places are observing same phenomena before it can be studied (environmentalist view, or organist view) 2ndstep Discover causes of behaviour (cause & effect) if the cause is discovered, its been explained (what causes ppl to act emotionally?) Casual event: an event that causes another event to occur We think our way into our way of thinking Wethink our way into our being But we also act our way into our way of thinking Example: go to school pissed off, and drag our feet on the floor & act sad FIELDS OF PSY Scientist = those who attempt to discover the causes of behaviour Practitioners= apply knowledge scientists discovered outside the lab Psychologist= some perform both *TF psychology= broad bc it has these 3 fields* psychologist Research Psychologist work in collegesuni investigate diff types of behaviour employed by private or govnt research analyze diff casual events labs EXAMPLE OF THE STOVE RELATES TO PSYCHOLOGY Operating machine Research psy in human factors & may look @various ways we can control the stove element Humans design experiments and see how we perform based on how we think make recommendations to manufacturers as to which has better performances w less error Research goal: discover + understand causes of behaviour Better understanding of behaviour + minds will let us prevent problems or manage them better *there are paradigms (concepts) out there, ways of seeing the world * study mental processes models of human behaviour (ex: environmentalist model-----we react to our environment which affects behaviour) www.notesolution.com
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