Textbook Notes (378,525)
CA (167,148)
UTSC (19,212)
Psychology (9,983)
PSYA01H3 (1,302)
Steve Joordens (1,140)
Chapter 3

PSYA01 chapter 3 notes

13 Pages
45 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 13 pages of the document.
Psychology Chapter 3
Evolution, Heredity, and Behavior
Development Evolutionary Theory
Charles Darwin argued that over time, organisms originate and become adapted to
their environments by biological means
Biological evolution changes that take place in the genetic and physical
characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time
Many behavioral differences among organisms, both within and across species,
correspond to genetic and other biological differences
Adaptive significance effectiveness of behavior in aiding organisms to adapt to
changing environmental conditions
Those who receive high scores on psychological tests for novelty are considered to be
impulsive, exploratory or excitable while those who receive low scores are
considered reflective, stoic and slow-tempered
Psychologists might research how past environmental conditions may favor novelty
seeking over more conservative reactions and how the immediate environment
influences day-to-day choices
Ultimate causes evolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped the behavior of a
species over generations
Proximate causes immediate environmental events and conditions that affect
behavior
Gerbil test
oA male fetus that develops next to other males is exposed to higher levels of
the male sex hormone, testosterone
oA male fetus that develops next to other females he will grow up to be not as
interested in females
To understand the present, we must understand the past
oPsychologists want to understand how adaptive behavior develops through
the long-term process of evolution
www.notesolution.com
We are members of the human species ultimate cause
We have learned to act in a special way proximate cause
Biology and environment contribute to our development
Evolutionary psychology investigates how an organisms evolutionary history
contributes to the development of behavior patterns and cognitive strategies related
to reproduction and survival during its lifetime
Culture sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs, and behavior patterns
common to a particular group of people
Alfred Russell Wallace and Darwin came up with the natural selection theory at the
same time
The Voyage of the Beagle
Darwin went aboard the Beagle to explore and survey the coast of South America
Collected many creatures and objects which were later examined by naturalists
Origin of Species
Voyage ended in 1836
Artificial selection procedure in which particular animals are deliberately mated to
produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics
oPeople are able to choose the specific characteristics that they do or do not
want the animals to breed
oDarwin speculated if artificial selection could also result in a different species
Natural selection consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and
behavioral differences among organisms, they reproduce differently
oWithin a given population, some animals the survivors will produce more
offspring than will other animals
Any animal that has characteristics that helps it to survive or adapt to changes in
environment will live longer and produce more offspring
Natural Selection
Species are not fixed, but rather change over time
www.notesolution.com
Evolution is a branching process, implying that all species descend from a single
common ancestor
Evolution is continuous with gradual changes
Evolution is based on natural selection
Natural selection was the key to success for Darwins theory
oIndividuals within a population show variability in heritable behavioral and
physical characteristics
oThe capacity of the environment to sustain a population of any species is
limited, producing competition
Species that compete are more likely to survive
Reproductive success number of viable offspring an individual produces relative to
the number of viable offspring produced by other members of the same species
oSurvival of the fittest
Variation differences found across individuals of any given species in terms of
their genetic, biological (size, strength, physiology), and psychological (intelligence,
sociability, behavior) characteristics
oFactors responsible genotype and phenotype
Genotype an organisms genetic makeup. Differs from all other individuals except
for identical twins
oDetermines how much the environment can influence an organisms
development and behavior
Phenotype results of genotype (outward expression of an organisms genotype) an
organisms physical characteristics and behavior
oProduced from genotypes interaction with environment
Genotypes in identical twins are the same, however phenotypes can be different
Grants’ study
oAlthough evolution occurs over the long run, natural selection can produce
important changes in the short run
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Psychology Chapter 3 Evolution, Heredity, and Behavior Development Evolutionary Theory Charles Darwin argued that over time, organisms originate and become adapted to their environments by biological means Biological evolution changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time Many behavioral differences among organisms, both within and across species, correspond to genetic and other biological differences Adaptive significance effectiveness of behavior in aiding organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions Those who receive high scores on psychological tests for novelty are considered to be impulsive, exploratory or excitable while those who receive low scores are considered reflective, stoic and slow-tempered Psychologists might research how past environmental conditions may favor novelty seeking over more conservative reactions and how the immediate environment influences day-to-day choices Ultimate causes evolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped the behavior of a species over generations Proximate causes immediate environmental events and conditions that affect behavior Gerbil test o A male fetus that develops next to other males is exposed to higher levels of the male sex hormone, testosterone o A male fetus that develops next to other females he will grow up to be not as interested in females To understand the present, we must understand the past o Psychologists want to understand how adaptive behavior develops through the long-term process of evolution www.notesolution.com We are members of the human species ultimate cause We have learned to act in a special way proximate cause Biology and environment contribute to our development Evolutionary psychology investigates how an organisms evolutionary history contributes to the development of behavior patterns and cognitive strategies related to reproduction and survival during its lifetime Culture sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs, and behavior patterns common to a particular group of people Alfred Russell Wallace and Darwin came up with the natural selection theory at the same time The Voyage of the Beagle Darwin went aboard the Beagle to explore and survey the coast of South America Collected many creatures and objects which were later examined by naturalists Origin of Species Voyage ended in 1836 Artificial selection procedure in which particular animals are deliberately mated to produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics o People are able to choose the specific characteristics that they do or do not want the animals to breed o Darwin speculated if artificial selection could also result in a different species Natural selection consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and behavioral differences among organisms, they reproduce differently o Within a given population, some animals the survivors will produce more offspring than will other animals Any animal that has characteristics that helps it to survive or adapt to changes in environment will live longer and produce more offspring Natural Selection Species are not fixed, but rather change over time www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit