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Chapter 6

PSYA01 chapter 6 notes

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Chapter 6 Perception
Perception rapid, automatic, unconscious process by which we recognize what is
represented by the information provided by our sense organs; not deliberate/effortful
Sense organ provide information to guide behavior
Brain Mechanisms of Visual Perception
Often described as hierarchy of information processing
Circuits o neurons analyze particular aspects of visual information and send the
results of their analysis to another circuit
Each step = more complex processing
Higher levels of perceptual process interact with memories
oPerson recognizes familiar objects and learns the appearance of new,
unfamiliar ones
Primary Visual Cortex
David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel inserted microelectrodes into various regions of the
visual system of cats and monkeys to detect action potentials
oMoved around stimulus on screen until they found a part where it had the
largest effect on electrical activity
oConclusion: geography of the visual field is retained in the primary cortex
Surface of retina is mapped on surface of cortex
Module block of cortical tissue that receives information from the same group of
receptor cells
Cortex contains around 2500 modules
Each module receives information from a small region of one retina
oReceives information from a small region of the visual field (scene projected
on retina)
Receptive field portion of the visual field in which the presentation of visual
stimuli will produce an alternation in the firing rate of a particular neuron
oi.e. Circuits can detect presence, width, movement and direction of lines
www.notesolution.com
Visual Association Cortex
Ability to perceive objects and entire visual scenes with the combination of
information from different modules
Two Streams of Visual Analysis
Neurons in the primary visual cortex sends axons to the region of the visual
association cortex surrounding the striate cortex
Two pathways: ventral stream and dorsal stream
Ventral stream ends in inferior temporal cortex
oFunctions in WHAT an object is (form, color, etc)
Dorsal stream ascends into posterior parietal cortex
oIdentifies WHERE an object is located and whether it is moving
Ventral stream: Perception of Form
Recognition of visual patterns and identification of particular objects takes place in
the inferior temporal cortex (end of ventral stream)
Analyses o form and color are put together and perceptions of 3-D images emerge
Visual agnosia inability of a person who is not blind to recognize the identity of an
object visually; caused by damage to visual association cortex
oSymptom: prosopagnosia form of visual agnosia characterized by difficulty
in the recognition of peoples faces; caused by damage to the visual
association cortex
Fusiform face area FFA; a region of the ventral stream of the visual system that
contains face-recognizing circuits
Those with autism had trouble recognizing faces
Extrastriate body area EBA; region of occipital cortex, next to primary visual
cortex, that responds to forms resembling the human body
Parahippocampal place area PPA; region of ventral stream, below hippocampus,
activated by visual scenes
Ventral System: perception of color
www.notesolution.com
Individual neurons in a region of the ventral system respond to particular colors,
which suggests that this region is involved in combining the information from
red/green and yellow/blue signals that originate in retinal ganglion cells
Cerebral achromatopsia inability to discriminate among different hues; caused by
damage to the visual association cortex (vision without color)
The Dorsal Stream: perception of spatial location
Parietal lobe receives visual, auditory, somatosensory and vestibular information
Damage to parietal lobe disturbs perceiving and remembering the location of objects,
and controlling the movement of the eyes and the limbs
Dorsal Stream: perception of movement
A region of the visual association cortex contains neurons that respond differentially
to movement
Located in extrastriate complex
Damage to this region in monkeys severely disrupts ability to perceive moving
stimuli
Bilateral damage to a similar region in humans akinetopsia
Akinetopsia inability to see motion
Form from Motion
Helps us perceive 3-D forms
Visual Perception of Objects
Figure and Ground
Objects things that have particular shapes and particular locations in space
Backgrounds essentially formless and serve mostly to help us judge the location o
objects we see in front of them
Figure and ground are used to label an object and its background
Figure a visual stimulus that is perceived as a self-contained object
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 6 Perception Perception rapid, automatic, unconscious process by which we recognize what is represented by the information provided by our sense organs; not deliberateeffortful Sense organ provide information to guide behavior Brain Mechanisms of Visual Perception Often described as hierarchy of information processing Circuits o neurons analyze particular aspects of visual information and send the results of their analysis to another circuit Each step = more complex processing Higher levels of perceptual process interact with memories o Person recognizes familiar objects and learns the appearance of new, unfamiliar ones Primary Visual Cortex David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel inserted microelectrodes into various regions of the visual system of cats and monkeys to detect action potentials o Moved around stimulus on screen until they found a part where it had the largest effect on electrical activity o Conclusion: geography of the visual field is retained in the primary cortex Surface of retina is mapped on surface of cortex Module block of cortical tissue that receives information from the same group of receptor cells Cortex contains around 2500 modules Each module receives information from a small region of one retina o Receives information from a small region of the visual field (scene projected on retina) Receptive field portion of the visual field in which the presentation of visual stimuli will produce an alternation in the firing rate of a particular neuron o i.e. Circuits can detect presence, width, movement and direction of lines www.notesolution.com
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