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Chapter 11

PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Intelligence Quotient, Heritability, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

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John Bassili

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Chapter 11
Intelligence: the general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and remember
information, to recognize concepts and their relations and to apply the information to
their own behaviour in an adaptive way
Differential Approach: An approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation
of tests that identifies and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and
abilities to solve problems
Developmental Approach: An approach to the study of intelligence based on the way
children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world
Information Processing Approach: An approach to the study of intelligence that focuses
on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problems
Spearmans Two-Factor Theory:
G factor (general): According to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all
intellectual tasks; includes
1.apprehension of experience: peoples ability to perceive and understand what
they experience
2.eduction of relations: the ability to perceive the relation between LAWYER and
3.eduction of correlates: the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a
similar case
(eduction is the process of bringing out or figuring out from given facts)
S factor (specific): According to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a
particular task
Factor Analysis: A statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of
tests. Determines which sets of tests form groups
CATTELL (1966)
Fluid intelligence is defined by relatively culture-free tasks, such as those that measure
the ability to see relations among objects or the ability to see patterns in a repeating
series of items
Crystallized intelligence: defined by task that require people to have acquired information
from their culture such as vocab and the kind of information learned in school
Information processing Theory of Intelligence:
Successful Intelligence: According to Sternberg, the ability to effectively analyze and
manage personal strengths and weaknesses. Uses the strengths to greatest
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