Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYA02H3 (1,000)
Chapter 17

chapter 17 notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Chapter
17

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CHAPTER 17: THE NATURE & CAUSES OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
ETIOLOGY- causes of origin of a disorder
less severe psychological disorders appear to be more heavily influenced by
environmental factors
less severe psychological disorders are more heavily influenced by heredity and other
biological factors
Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders
Emil Kraepelin
cre a ted clas sific a tion system for p sych olo gic al disorders
What is Abnormal?
psych ologic al disorders are chara c teriz e d as ab n ormal b ehavior, thoughts an d fe elin g
abnormal- d eparture from any n orm
hard for p eo ple with p sych ologic al disorders to h old jo bs
Perspe c tives an d the Causes of Psych ologic al Disorders
THE PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE:
based o n Freu ds e a rly work
psych olo gic al disorders originate in intrapsychic co nflict pro d u c e d by 3
comp o n ents of the min d : id, ego and su p ereg o
co nflicts come from at t empts to co n trol p o tenti ally harmful ex pres sion of sex u al
or ag gres sive imp ulses-> may come from at t empts to co p e wit h traumatic
ex p erienc e s
when co nflict is severe, d efense me c hanism c a nt produc e a resolutio n that is
adeq u ate for mental h e alt h
psych olo gic al disorders involve extreme an xiety, d epres sion, an d o b ses sio n
THE MEDICAL PERSPECTIVE:
c a me from ancient Gre ek p hysician, Hippo crates
mental illnes s: illnes s of the min d
tre a tment by u se of dru g s (to d ay)
in the p ast, p eo ple were tre a ted in asylums (mental institutio n s)
beli eves that p sych olo gic al disorders are c a used by ab n ormalities of the brain an
nervous system
mental illnes s should b e ap proa c hed the same for tre a tment like p hy sic al illnes s
THE COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE:
beli eves that p sych ologic al disorders are le arned, maladaptive p at t erns that c a n
best u n d ersto o d by lookin g at enviro n mental factors
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psychological disorders are caused by a persons interaction with their
environment
the persons interpretation of the even ts taking place
THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH:
psychological disorders arise when people believe they must earn the positive
regard of others
become overly sensitive to the demand and criticisms of others
define themselves according to others interactions towards the m
lack confidence
often feel depressed
THE SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE:
cultural variables influence whe ther or not people interpret your behavior as
normal or abnormal
based on culture
what is considered normal in one culture, may be considered abnormal in anothe
culture bound syndromes- psychological disorders appear to occur only in certain
cultures
THE BIOPSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE:
diathesis stress model- psychological disorders develop when a person possesses
predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that affect his/her ability to cope
with the m
combination of genes and individuals early experiences
identifies genetic, psychological, behavioural and cognitive factors
The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme
latest version of psychological disorder classification
manual used for classifying these disorders
uses 5 different criteria called axes
comorbid- appearance of 2 or more disorders in a single person
Some Problems With DSM-IV-TR Classification
focuses heavily on biological perspective
not reliable
different people react differently to diagnosis due to personality
Szaz says labeling people as men tally ill places the responsibility for their care on the
mental establishment
Substance use, mood and anxiety disorders were found to be the most common by
Newman and Bland
Clinical vs Acturial Diagnosis
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once data is collected, clinicians can interpret the m in 2 ways:
1)clinical judgments- diagnosis of psychological disorders or predictions of
future behavior based on experts experience and knowledge
2)actuarial judg men ts- based on numerical formulas from analysis of prior
outcomes (statistics)
-work well when applied to large groups of people
actuarial judg men ts are more accurate, but most health care professionals use the
clinical method
Disorders Usually Diagnosed in Childhood
ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER:
lack of attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity
child- younger than age 7- affects social and academic functioning
make careless errors, find it difficult to complete tasks, easily distracted, forgetful
some researchers believe it is due to an insufficiency of dopamine, although social
factors also play a role
AUTISTIC DISORDER
abnormal development of social interaction and com munication
limitations of activity and interest
symptoms appear before age 3
failure to make eye contact and use facial expressions
prefer activities involving being alone
First identified by Leo Kanner
first believed to be a language disorder
theory of mind- children with autistic disorder fail to make the connection between
thoughts and actions
ANXIETY SOMOTOFORM AND DISSOCIATIVE
PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
neuroses- anxiety, somatoform and dissociative psychological disorders are strategies
of perception and behavior that often go out of hand- characterized by increases in
anxiety
people with neuroses experience anxiety, fear and depression- know they have a
problem
Anxiety Disorders
anxiety-sense of apprehension or doom that is accompanied by many psychological
reactions (high heart rate, sweaty palms, tightness in stomach)
most common psychological disorders
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