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Chapter Notes

Course Code
John Bassili

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Intelligence – the general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and remember
information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own
behaviour in an adaptive way
Differential Approach – an approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests
that identifies and measures individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve
-(e.g.) tests such as defining words, explaining proverbs, solving arithmetic
problems, discovering similarities in shapes and patterns, and answer questions
about a passage of prose
Developmental Approach – an approach to the study of intelligence based on the way children
learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world
Information Processing Approach – an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the
types of skills people use to think and to solve problems
The differential approach assumes that we can best investigate the nature of intelligence
by studying the ways in which people differ on tests of such intellectual abilities
Spearmans Two-Factor Theory
Charles Spearman proposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is
determined by two factors: the g factor and the s factor
G Factor – according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual
tasks; includes apprehension of experience, education of relations, and education of correlates
-Spearman defined the g factor as comprising threequalitative principles of
cognition”: apprehension of experience, eduction (the process of drawing or
bringing out; of figuring out from given facts) of relations, and eduction of
-Eduction of relations refers to the ability to perceive the relation between (e.g)
-Eduction of correlates refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one
case to a similar case (e.g.) “LAWYER is to CLIENT as DOCTOR is to______
(obviously PATIENT)
S Factor – according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task
A persons score on a particular test depends on 2 things: the persons specific ability (s)
on the particular test (such as spatial reasoning) and his or her level of the g factor, or
general reasoning ability

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Evidence from Factor Analysis
Factor Analysis – a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests
-These common factors would be particular abilities that affect peoples
performance on more than one test
-Fluid intelligence (gf) is defined by relatively culture-free tasks, such as those
that measure the ability to see relations among objects or the ability to see
patterns in a repeating series of items
Closely related to persons native capacity for intellectual
performance; represents potential ability to learn/solve problems
-Crystallized intelligence (gc) is defined by tasks that require people to have
acquired information from their culture, such as vocabulary and the kind of
information learned in schools
What a person has accomplished through the use of his or her
fluid intelligence – what he or she has learned
Word analogies and vocabulary, general information, and use of
language tests load heavily on the crystallized intelligence factor
According to Cattell, gc depends on gf
Fluid intelligence supplies the native ability, whereas experience with language and
exposure to books, school, and other learning opportunities develop crystallized
An Information Processing Theory
The degree of success that people achieve in life is strongly affected by the extent to
which they effectively analyze and manage their unique combinations of strengths and
Sternberg has devised a triarchic (“ruled by three”) theory on intelligence that derives
from the information processing approach
-Deal with three aspects of intelligence: analytic intelligence, creative
intelligence, and practical intelligence
-Successful Intelligence – according to Sternberg, the ability to effectively
analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses
Analytic Intelligence – according to Sternberg, the mental mechanisms people use to plan and
execute tasks; includes metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge acquisition
-Consists of the mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks
-Metacomponents (transcending components) – are the processes by which
people decide the nature of an intellectual problem, select a strategy for solving
it, and allocate their resources

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-Performance components – are the processes actually used to perform the task
-Knowledge acquisition components – those that the person uses to gain new
knowledge by sifting out relevant information and integrating it with what he
or she already knows
Creative Intelligence – according to Sternberg, the ability to deal effectively with novel situations
and to solve problems automatically that have been encountered previously
According to Sternberg, tasks that use fluid intelligence demand novel approaches,
whereas tasks that use crystallized intelligence demand mental processes that have
become automatic
Practical Intelligence – according to Sternberg, intelligence that reflects the behaviours that were
subject to natural selection: adaptation – fitting oneself into ones environment by developing
useful skills and behaviours; selection – finding ones own niche in the environment; and shaping
– changing the environment
Neuropsychological Theories of Intelligence
Intelligences are potentials that may or may not be activated in the individual depending
on the extent to which the individuals culture values the expression of those potentials
Gardner believes that each of the intelligences he identifies is the result of evolution, and
has separate, unique, neuropsychological underpinnings
Garnder concludes there are 8 intelligences that meet his criteria of distinctness; believes
theres evidence of potential 9th intelligence, existential intelligence (“intelligence of big
Syllogism – a logical construction that contains a major premise (principle) (e.g., All birds have
feathers), a minor premise (e.g., A Canada goose is a bird), and a conclusion (e.g., A Canada
goose has feathers). The major and minor premises are assumed to be true, and the truth of the
conclusion is to be evaluated by deductive reasoning
-A tool for measuring deductive logic
Several studies suggested that unschooled people in remote villages in various parts of the
world were unable to solve syllogistic problems; their deductive-reasoning ability is not
necessarily inferior to ours; it is simply different
Theory of multiple intelligences allows for recognition of different types of intelligence
Interim Summary – Theories of Intelligence
Although intelligence is represented by the IQ, whats controversial is whether a general
factor also exists
-Spearman named the general factor g and demonstrated that peoples scores on
a variety of specific tests of ability were correlated; also believed that specific
factors (s factors) also existed
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