Chapter 14

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Published on 13 Jul 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
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Chapter 14
Personality: pattern of thinking/behaving that is unique per person and lasts across
time and place
Researching personality: identify personality characteristics and the variables that
produce and control them
Personality type: category of personality that is based on developmental experiences
and physical characteristics
Similar cultures and personality often arise from living in close proximity
Galen: Came up with 4 temperamental types:
Sanguine = excess of blood. Fun-loving, outgoing, and wants company. Not Neurotic
and Extraverted
Melancholic = excess of black bile. Gloomy, depressed. Neurotic and Introverted
Phlegmatic = excess of phlegm. Sluggish, lazy. Not Neurotic and Introverted
Choleric = excess yellow bile. Violent/aggressive. Neurotic and Extraverted
Personality trait is continuous across time and situations:
-do not have to be distinct (e.g. more than one person can be cheery)
-they do have to reveal themselves in a variety of situations
-they have to be enduring
-they have to be unique to the person
-better than types, since it is easier to measure the degree of a trait than it is a type
Allport:
-studied how words were used to describe personality traits
-idea was that if a trait was important enough, it could be defined by one word
-Initially had 18 000 words
-Of these, 4500 were personality traits
Cardinal traits: those traits that define a person - Mandela's need for justice or Mother
Teresas generosity
Central traits: traits that capture important characteristics about the person – saying
they are honest or confident
Secondary traits: traits that have minor influence on consistency of behaviourhe is a
punctual person
Cattell:
-Argued there were 16 personality traits (he called these factors)
-Used factor analysis to limit down 4500 traits to 35 clusters
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-From these 35 clusters he narrowed it down to 12 factors
-Concept of Surface (correlated observable) traits and Source (underlying causing) traits
-Three types of Source Traits: Temperamental (stylistic) Dynamic (Goal-relevant) and Ability
Eysenck:
-Three factors: extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism
-He (of all trait theorists) thought of personality in most biological terms
-An extrovert would have LOW levels of cortical arousal and needs to seek
thrills
-An introvert has HIGH levels of cortical arousal, and needs very little
stimulation to reach their optimal level
-Extroversion - seek other people, be spontaneous, outgoing
- Introversion - shyness, tendency to avoid other people
-Neuroticism - be worried and full of anxiety/guilt. Moody and unstable. Excess
of emotion over tiny little things. Low emotional stability (being at peace and
relaxed with oneself)
-Psychoticism - Aggressive, antisocial and egocentric. Very low self-control
(tendency to be cruel and break the laws)
Costa and McCrae:
-the Five-Factor model (also called clusters)
-measured through the NEO-PI -R
-Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness
(OCEAN)
-Openness - being willing to try new things. Was originally thought to be
intelligence
-Agreeableness - Empathetic, friendly, and nice to others
-Conscientiousness - being responsible, reliable, linked to hard work and
success within work and studies. Most important of all job classifications
(It was later suggested by Jackson that it could be subdivided into methodical-
ness and industriousness)
-Extraversion and Neuroticism similar to Eysenck
Dark Triad:
Machiavellianism (manipulating others)
Narcissism (feeling superior)
Psychopathy (lack of empathy and driven by impulses)
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Psychobiological Approach:
-Work is done mostly with identical twins
-Look at the heritability of personality traits - strong indication since identical
twins will have similar personality
-Also look at brain damage on personality (Phineas Gage) - took a railroad spike
through the brain - prefrontal cortex, and as such there was no higher order to
control the impulses from the limbic system
-Heritability will not control belief in God, racial/gender views, and intellectual
interests. These are the result of a family environment (culture)
-High neuroticism is associated with more activity in the amygdala
Zuckerman:
Psychoticism will carry with it a high optimum level of arousal
Extraversion is most inheritable of all types
Extroverts are sensitive to reinforcements
Neurotics are sensitive to punishment
Psychopaths have low sensitivity to punishment
Social Cognitive/Social Learning Approach:
-Skinner and Bandura - big names in social learning approach
-Consequences of behaviour and belief about the behaviour is what defines
personality
-Reflecting on behaviour also defines our personality
-Expectancy: believing a certain consequence will follow a certain action. If
you have an expectancy, there is vicarious reinforcement
-Self – handicapping: making excuses when one performs poorly. This may even
manifest itself in you doing something that will actually handicap you before
the action (e.g. getting drunk before an exam)
-Observational learning: learning through observing kinds of consequences
others experience as a result of their behaviour
-Reciprocal determinism: Behaviour, environment, and personal variables
interact to determine personality (Bandura strongly supported this)
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Document Summary

Personality: pattern of thinking/behaving that is unique per person and lasts across time and place. Researching personality: identify personality characteristics and the variables that produce and control them. Personality type: category of personality that is based on developmental experiences and physical characteristics. Similar cultures and personality often arise from living in close proximity. Personality trait is continuous across time and situations: Do not have to be distinct (e. g. more than one person can be cheery) Cardinal traits: those traits that define a person - mandela"s need for justice or mother. Central traits: traits that capture important characteristics about the person saying they are honest or confident. Secondary traits: traits that have minor influence on consistency of behaviour he is a punctual person. Argued there were 16 personality traits (he called these factors) Used factor analysis to limit down 4500 traits to 35 clusters www. notesolution. com. From these 35 clusters he narrowed it down to 12 factors.