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Chapter 18

PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 18: Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, Aversion Therapy, Exposure Therapy

Course Code
John Bassili

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Chapter 18 The Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Psychological Disorders
Early Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Trephining: a surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a living
Opening was made to permit evil spirits to leave the victims head
Some people survived
People thought to be unwilling hosts for evil spirits were subjected to curses or
insults designed to persuade the demons to leave
If this had no effect, exorcism was attempted to make the persons body an
unpleasant place for devils to reside
Other rituals included beatings, starving, near drowning, and the drinking of foul-
tasting concoctions
Some with severe problems were sent to asylums where they were chained and
wallowed in their own excrement
Others who displayed catatonic postures were displayed to the public for a fee
Philippe Pinel improved treatment by changing attitudes of patients
Used kind treatment orderliness and general calm
The Development of Psychotherapy
Anton Mesmer modern approach to therapy
Theory of magnetic fluxes effect cures by manipulating iron rods and
bottles of chemicals
Hypnotized his patients and thereby alleviated some of their

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Jean Martin Charcot studied therapeutic uses of hypnosis
Freud created practice of psychoanalysis
Eclectic approach: a form of therapy in which the therapist uses whatever method
he or she feels will work best for a particular client at a particular time
Insight Therapies
Psychoanalysis and Modern Psychodynamic Approaches
Psychoanalysis: a form of therapy aimed at providing the client with insight into
his or her unconscious motivations and impulses
Purpose of therapy I to create a setting in which clues about the origins of
intrapsychic conflicts are most likely to be revealed by the client
One of the main goals of the psychoanalyst is to interpret the clues about the origins
of intrapsychic conflict given by the client
The clients main job is to provide the psychoanalyst with something to interpret:
description of their fears, anxieties, thoughts, or repressed memories
Psychoanalytic Techniques
Free association: a psychoanalytic procedure in which the client is
encouraged to speak freely, without censoring possibly embarrassing or
socially unacceptable
Dream interpretation the evaluation of the underlying meaning of dream
Manifest manifest content of a dream is the actual images and events that
occur within the dream
Latent latent content of a dream is the hidden meaning or significance of
the dream
Resistance: development during therapy in which the client becomes

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defensive, unconsciously attempting to halt further insight by censoring his
or her true feelings
Transference: the process by which a client begins to project powerful
attitudes and emotions onto the therapist
Freud thought of transference as a distraction from the real issue
Realized it was an important in the success of therapy
Countertransference: process by which the therapist projects his or her
emotions onto the client
Modern Psychodynamic Therapy
Psychodynamic therapy: a variation o the Freudian approach to therapy in
which therapists search for unconscious conflicts and motivation but do not
adhere strictly to Freuds conception of psychoanalysis
Psychodynamic therapists view the ego as playing a more active role in
influencing a persons thoughts and actions
Brief psychodynamic therapy takes about 10-25 sessions to complete
Goal is to understand and improve the clients interpersonal skills
through the interpretation of transference processes
Humanistic Therapy
A form of therapy focusing on the persons unique potential or personal growth and
Client-Centered Therapy
Carl Rogers
Form of therapy in which the client is allowed to decide what to talk about
without strong direction and judgment from the therapist
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