Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (160,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYA02H3 (1,000)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Oren Amitay
Chapter
11

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 11 pages of the document.
Chapter 11 Notes – Intelligence And Thinking
x
Intelligence
the general term used to refer to a person’s ability to learn and remember
information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their
own behaviour in an adaptive way
o
Psychologists have pointed out that any definition of intelligence depends on cultural
judgements
o
Analyses of the types of skills that enable people to survive broaden the generally
accepted definition to include a wider range of abilities
x
The study of intelligence is dominated by three main approaches
o
Differential Approach
an approach to study the intelligence that involves the creation
of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people’s knowledge and
abilities to solve problems
E.g. these tests ask people to define words, explain proverbs, solve arithmetic
problems, discover similarities in shapes and patterns, and answer questions
about a passage of prose
o
Developmental Approach
an approach to the study of intelligence based on the way
children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world
The most influential proponent of this approach was Jean Piaget
o
Information Processing Approach
an approach to the study of intelligence that
focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problems
x
The differential approach assumes that we can best investigate the nature of intelligence by
studying the ways in which people differ on tests of such intellectual abilities
x
Psychologists have devised intelligence tests that yield a single number, usually called an IQ
score
o
But the fact that intelligence is a single, general characteristic
x
Some researchers promote the idea that some intellectual abilities are completely independent
of one another
o
E.g. a person can be excellent at spatial reasoning but poor at solving verbal analogies
x
Charles Spearman proposed that a person’s performance on a test of intellectual ability is
determined by two factors
o
G Factor
according to spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all
intellectual tasks; includes apprehension of experience, education of relations, and
education of correlates
Comprises of three “qualitative principles of cognition”:
x
Apprehension of experience, eduction of relations, and eduction of
correlates
x
E.g. Lawyer is to Client as Doctor is to?
o
Apprehension of experience refers to people’s ability to
perceive and understand what they experience
o
Eduction of relations refers to the ability to perceive the
relation between one thing and another
o
Education of correlates refers to the ability to apply a rule of
inferred from one case to a similar case
Thus, this becomes “-as doctor is to patient”
www.notesolution.com

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

o
S Factor
according to spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular
task
x
Factor Analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests
o
A factor analysis revealed three factors in common; A, B, and C. The numbers in the
three columns in the table are called factor loads; they are somewhat like correlation
coefficients in that they express the degree to which a particular test is related to a
particular factor
o
Verbal ability
factor A’s verbal subtests make the most important contribution, along
with the other larger factors being information, comprehension, and similarities
However factor A also has a lot of moderate contribution from almost all tests,
so this is what people to prefer general intelligence
o
Factor B is related to maintaining information in short-term memory and manipulating
numbers
o
Factor C is mainly determined by block design, object assembly, picture, etc. So this
would be spatial ability
Three Factors Derived By Factor Analysis Of Scores On WAIS Subtests
Subtests
Factors
A
B
C
Information
.70
.18
.25
Digit Span
.16
.84
.13
Vocabulary
.84
.16
.18
Ar
.38
.35
.28
Comprehension
.63
.12
.24
Similarities
.57
.12
.27
Picture Completion
.41
.15
.53
Picture Arrangement
.35
.18
.41
Block Design
.20
.14
.73
Object Assembly
.16
.06
.59
Digit Symbol
.24
.22
.29
x
Two major factors that Cattell found are fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
o
Fluid Intelligence (gf)
relatively culture-free tasks, such as those that measure the
ability to see relations among objects or the ability to see patterns in repeating series of
items
o
Crystallized Intelligence (gc)
tasks that require people to have acquired information
from their culture, such as vocabulary, and the kind of information learned in schools
Fluid intelligence represents the potential ability to learn and solve problems
Crystallized intelligence is what a person has accomplished through the use of
his or her fluid intelligence – what they have learned
o
According to Cattell, crystallized intelligence depends on fluid intelligence; fluid supplies
the native ability whereas experience with language and exposure to books and other
learning opportunities develop crystallized intelligence
www.notesolution.com

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Summary Of Tests With Large Factor Loadings On Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence
Test
g
f
g
c
Figural Relations
deduction of a relation when this is sh
own among common figures
.57
.01
Memory Span
Reproduction of several numbers or letters presented briefly
.50
.00
Induction
Deduction of a correlate from relations shown in a series of letters, numbers, or
figures, as in a letter series test
.41
.06
General Reasoning
solving problems of area, rate, finance, and the like, as in an arithmetic
reasoning test
.31
.34
Semantic Relations
deduction of a relation when this is shown among words, as in an
analogies test
.37
.43
Formal Reasoning
arrivin
g at a conclusion in accordance with a formal reasoning process,
as in a syllogistic reasoning test
.31
.41
Number Facility
quick and accurate use of arithmetical operations such as a
subtraction, and multiplication
.21
.29
Experiential Evaluat
ion
solving problems involving protocol and requiring diplomacy, as in
a social relations test
.08
.43
Verbal Comprehension
advanced understanding of language, as in a vocabulary reading
test
.08
.68
x
Robert Sternberg said that the degree of success that people achieve in life is strongly affected
by the extent to which they effectively analyze and manage their unique combinations of
strengths and weaknesses
o
He devised a triarchic theory of intelligence that derives from the information
processing approach
o
The three parts of the theory deal with three aspects of intelligence: analytic
intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence
Analytic Intelligence
according to Sternberg, the mental mechanisms people
use to plan and execute tasks; including metacomponents, performance
components, and knowledge acquisition components
x
E.g. verbal ability and deductive reasoning
x
Metacomponents processes by which people decide the nature of an
intellectual problem, select a strategy for solving it, and allocate their
resources
Creative Intelligence
according to Sternberg, the ability to deal effectively
with novel situations and to solve problems automatically that have been
encountered previously
Practical Intelligence
according to Sternberg, intelligence that reflects the
behaviours that were subject to natural selection: adaptation – fitting ones-self
into one’s environment by developing useful skills and behaviours; selection –
finding one’s own niche in the environment; and shaping – changing the
environment
o
These three abilities go beyond the abilities measured by most common tests of
intelligence
o
Taken together, these three aspects contribute to successful intelligence
www.notesolution.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version