Textbook Notes (381,094)
CA (168,350)
UTSC (19,304)
Psychology (10,047)
PSYA02H3 (984)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11

11 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Oren Amitay

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Chapter 11 Notes – Intelligence And Thinking
x
Intelligence
the general term used to refer to a person’s ability to learn and remember
information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their
own behaviour in an adaptive way
o
Psychologists have pointed out that any definition of intelligence depends on cultural
judgements
o
Analyses of the types of skills that enable people to survive broaden the generally
accepted definition to include a wider range of abilities
x
The study of intelligence is dominated by three main approaches
o
Differential Approach
an approach to study the intelligence that involves the creation
of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people’s knowledge and
abilities to solve problems
E.g. these tests ask people to define words, explain proverbs, solve arithmetic
problems, discover similarities in shapes and patterns, and answer questions
about a passage of prose
o
Developmental Approach
an approach to the study of intelligence based on the way
children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world
The most influential proponent of this approach was Jean Piaget
o
Information Processing Approach
an approach to the study of intelligence that
focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problems
x
The differential approach assumes that we can best investigate the nature of intelligence by
studying the ways in which people differ on tests of such intellectual abilities
x
Psychologists have devised intelligence tests that yield a single number, usually called an IQ
score
o
But the fact that intelligence is a single, general characteristic
x
Some researchers promote the idea that some intellectual abilities are completely independent
of one another
o
E.g. a person can be excellent at spatial reasoning but poor at solving verbal analogies
x
Charles Spearman proposed that a person’s performance on a test of intellectual ability is
determined by two factors
o
G Factor
according to spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all
intellectual tasks; includes apprehension of experience, education of relations, and
education of correlates
Comprises of three “qualitative principles of cognition”:
x
Apprehension of experience, eduction of relations, and eduction of
correlates
x
E.g. Lawyer is to Client as Doctor is to?
o
Apprehension of experience refers to people’s ability to
perceive and understand what they experience
o
Eduction of relations refers to the ability to perceive the
relation between one thing and another
o
Education of correlates refers to the ability to apply a rule of
inferred from one case to a similar case
Thus, this becomes “-as doctor is to patient”
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o
S Factor
according to spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular
task
x
Factor Analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests
o
A factor analysis revealed three factors in common; A, B, and C. The numbers in the
three columns in the table are called factor loads; they are somewhat like correlation
coefficients in that they express the degree to which a particular test is related to a
particular factor
o
Verbal ability
factor A’s verbal subtests make the most important contribution, along
with the other larger factors being information, comprehension, and similarities
However factor A also has a lot of moderate contribution from almost all tests,
so this is what people to prefer general intelligence
o
Factor B is related to maintaining information in short-term memory and manipulating
numbers
o
Factor C is mainly determined by block design, object assembly, picture, etc. So this
would be spatial ability
Three Factors Derived By Factor Analysis Of Scores On WAIS Subtests
Subtests
Factors
A
B
C
Information
.70
.18
.25
Digit Span
.16
.84
.13
Vocabulary
.84
.16
.18
Ar
.38
.35
.28
Comprehension
.63
.12
.24
Similarities
.57
.12
.27
Picture Completion
.41
.15
.53
Picture Arrangement
.35
.18
.41
Block Design
.20
.14
.73
Object Assembly
.16
.06
.59
Digit Symbol
.24
.22
.29
x
Two major factors that Cattell found are fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
o
Fluid Intelligence (gf)
relatively culture-free tasks, such as those that measure the
ability to see relations among objects or the ability to see patterns in repeating series of
items
o
Crystallized Intelligence (gc)
tasks that require people to have acquired information
from their culture, such as vocabulary, and the kind of information learned in schools
Fluid intelligence represents the potential ability to learn and solve problems
Crystallized intelligence is what a person has accomplished through the use of
his or her fluid intelligence – what they have learned
o
According to Cattell, crystallized intelligence depends on fluid intelligence; fluid supplies
the native ability whereas experience with language and exposure to books and other
learning opportunities develop crystallized intelligence
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Summary Of Tests With Large Factor Loadings On Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence
Test
g
f
g
c
Figural Relations
deduction of a relation when this is sh
own among common figures
.57
.01
Memory Span
Reproduction of several numbers or letters presented briefly
.50
.00
Induction
Deduction of a correlate from relations shown in a series of letters, numbers, or
figures, as in a letter series test
.41
.06
General Reasoning
solving problems of area, rate, finance, and the like, as in an arithmetic
reasoning test
.31
.34
Semantic Relations
deduction of a relation when this is shown among words, as in an
analogies test
.37
.43
Formal Reasoning
arrivin
g at a conclusion in accordance with a formal reasoning process,
as in a syllogistic reasoning test
.31
.41
Number Facility
quick and accurate use of arithmetical operations such as a
subtraction, and multiplication
.21
.29
Experiential Evaluat
ion
solving problems involving protocol and requiring diplomacy, as in
a social relations test
.08
.43
Verbal Comprehension
advanced understanding of language, as in a vocabulary reading
test
.08
.68
x
Robert Sternberg said that the degree of success that people achieve in life is strongly affected
by the extent to which they effectively analyze and manage their unique combinations of
strengths and weaknesses
o
He devised a triarchic theory of intelligence that derives from the information
processing approach
o
The three parts of the theory deal with three aspects of intelligence: analytic
intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence
Analytic Intelligence
according to Sternberg, the mental mechanisms people
use to plan and execute tasks; including metacomponents, performance
components, and knowledge acquisition components
x
E.g. verbal ability and deductive reasoning
x
Metacomponents processes by which people decide the nature of an
intellectual problem, select a strategy for solving it, and allocate their
resources
Creative Intelligence
according to Sternberg, the ability to deal effectively
with novel situations and to solve problems automatically that have been
encountered previously
Practical Intelligence
according to Sternberg, intelligence that reflects the
behaviours that were subject to natural selection: adaptation – fitting ones-self
into one’s environment by developing useful skills and behaviours; selection –
finding one’s own niche in the environment; and shaping – changing the
environment
o
These three abilities go beyond the abilities measured by most common tests of
intelligence
o
Taken together, these three aspects contribute to successful intelligence
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Description
Chapter 11 Notes Intelligence And Thn i king N Intelligencethe general term used to refer toa persons abit to learn and member information, to reognize concepts andtheir relation, and to apply the inr ation to their own behaviour in an adaptive way o Psychologists have pointed out that ay definition oi telligence depens on cultural judgements o Analyses of the typesof skills thatenable people tosurvive broaden thegenerally accepted definitionto include a wider range of abliies N The study of intelligee is dominated bythree main approaches o Differential Approachan approach o t study the intelligence that olves the creation of tests that identify andmeasure ini idual differces in peoplesknowledge and abilities to solverblems E.g. these tests askpeople to defe words, explain prverbs, solve arimetic problems,discover smi ilarities in shs and patterns,and answer questoins about a passage of prse o Developmental Ap proachan approach o t the study of intelence based on the way children learn to pereive, manipulate,and think about the world The most influential prponent of this apprachwasJeanPiag et o Information Process ing Approachan approach to th e study of intelligee that focuses on the typesof skills peopleuse to think ant solve problems N The differential aroach assumes that we can bes t investigatethe nature of illigence by studying the ways inwhich people diffr on tests of ch intellectual abiltiies N Psychologists have evised inteli ence tests thatyield a single number, usually calledanIQ score o But the fact that itlligence is asingle, generalcharacteristic N Some researchers pormotethe idea that someintellectual abilities areompletely independent of one another o E.g. a person can beexcellent at spatialreasoning butpoor at solving verbalanalogies N Charles Spearman po rposed that a perons performance on a test of itllectual abilityis determined by tw o factors o G Factoraccording to spearman, afactor of intellience that isommon toall intellectual tasks; indesapprehension of experienc e, education ofelations, and education of correlats Comprises of threequalitative priciples of cognitn: N Apprehension of experience, educti n of relations,d eduction of correlates N E.g. Lawyer ist Client as Dot r is to? o Apprehension of e xperience referst peoples abilityto perceive and understand what they exp erience o Eduction of relati ns refers to the abt to perceivet e relation betweenone thing and another o Education of corr lates refers toe ability to applya rule of inferred from onecase to a similarcase Thus, this becomes-as doctor is to paint www.notesolution.com o SFactoraccording to spearman, afactor of intellience that is spcific to a particular task N Factor Analysisa statistical procedure thatentifies common factors among groups of tests o A factor analysis vealed three fators in common; A,B,andC.Thenumb ers in the three columns in the table are calledfactor loads; y are somewhat lkie correlation coefficients in thatthey express theegree to whi h a particulat st is relatet a particular factor o Verbal abilityfactor Asverbal subtets makethe most important contribution,along with the other largerfactors being formation, comprehension, an d similarities However factor Aalso has a lot ofmoderate contribuiton from almost alltsts, so this is what ople to prefer geeral intelligence o Factor B is relatedto maintaining information inort-term memor y and manipulating numbers o Factor C is mainlydetermined by bolck design, objectassembly, pture, etc. So is would be spatial abilty Three Factors Derived By Factor Analysis Of ScoresOnWAISSubtests Subtests Factors A B C Information .70 .18 .25 Digit Span .16 .84 .13 Vocabulary .84 .16 .18 Arithmetic .38 .35 .28 Comprehension .63 .12 .24 Similarities .57 .12 .27 Picture Completion .41 .15 .53 Picture Arrangement .35 .18 .41 BlockDesign .20 .14 .73 Object Assembly .16 .06 .59 Digit Symbol .24 .22 .29 N Two major factorsthat Cattell found are fluid intence and crystallized intelence o Fluid Intelligence fg)relatively cule-free tasks, ch as those that mesure the ability to see relins among objectsor the ability tosee patterns in repeagseries of items o Crystallized Intlligence(c ) tasks that reqe people to have acquired iformation from their culture,such as vocabulary, andthe kind ofinformation learned inschools Fluid intelligencrpresents the potential ability torn and solve problms Crystallized inteence is what a person has accmplished through th e use of his or her fluid intence what they hav e learned o According to Cattell,crystallized intelligence des on fluid intelence; fluid supplies the native abilitywhereas experiene with language and exposureo t books and other learning opportunities develop cystallized inteence www.notesolution.com
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