PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Job Performance, Nootropic, Peter Salovey

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
PSYA02 Chapter 10 Intelligence
- Williams Syndrome
o Caused by the absence of 20 genes on chromosome 7, impairing a person’s general
cognitive abilities leaving them with a talent for music and language
o Have an “elfin” facial appearance
- Intelligence: The ability to direct one’s thinking, adapt to one’s circumstances and learn from
one’s experiences
How Can Intelligence Be Measured?
- 1920, Henry Goddard administered intelligence tests to arriving immigrants at Ellis Island and
concluded that the overwhelming majority of Jews, Hungarians, Italians and Russians were
o Used his test to identify feebleminded American families who he claimed were
responsible for the nation’s social problems; suggested the government to segregate
them in isolated colonies and “take away from these people the power of procreation”
USA passed laws restricting immigration of people from Southern and Eastern
Europe, & 27 states passed laws requiring the sterilization of “mental
The Intelligence Quotient
- 19th Century, France instituted a sweeping set of education reforms that made primary school
available to children of every social class; suddenly there was a diverse mix of children who
differed dramatically in their rediness to learn
o French government asked Alfred Binet (psychologist) and Theodore Simon (physician)
to develop remedial programs for those who lagged behind
- Binet and Simon set out to develop an objective test that would provide an unbiased measure of
a child’s ability
o Began with tasks that could distinguish one from another
Ex. Solving logic problems, remembering words, copying pictures, distinguishing
edible and inedible foods, making rhymes, and answering questions
o Designed their test to measure a child’s aptitude for learning independent of the child’s
prior educational achievement --- “Natural Intelligence” test
- William Stern (Germ psychologist) suggested that this mental level could be thought of as a
child’s mental age
o To determine whether a child was developing normally was to examine the ratio of the
child’s mental age to the child’s physical age
- Lewis Terman (American psychologist) formalized the comparison with the intelligence quotient
or ratio IQ: a statistic obtained by dividing a person’s mental age by the person’s physical age
and then multiplying the quotient by 100
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- Deviation IQ: A statistic obtained by dividing a person’s test score by the average test score or
people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100
o Disadvantage: Does not allow comparisons between people of different age groups
o Advantage: A person cannot simply become a genius by simply getting older
The Logic of Intelligence Test
- To design an intelligence test…
o We assume that a property called intelligence leads people to experience a wide variety
of consequences
o It would be highly impractical to measure these consequences, we devised an easily
administered set of tasks instead, who successful completion is known to be correlated
with those consequences
Could call it an “intelligence test” – what we mean by that phrase “a
measurement of a person’s performance on tasks that are correlated with the
consequences that intelligence produces”
- Intelligence tests measure the ability to answer questions and perform tasks that are highly
correlated with the ability to get good grades, solve real-world problems and etc.
- Most widely used intelligence tests are:
o Standford-Binet
o WAIS (The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)
Both test require respondents to answer a variety of questions and solve a
variety of problems
The Consequences of Intelligence
- Intelligence test scores are highly correlated with just about every outcome that human beings
care about grades, jobs, money, health, longevity
- Intelligence test scores is the best predictor of the numbers of years of education an individual
will receive predicting occupational status and income
o Strong correlation between the average intelligence score of a nation and its overall
economic status
- Intelligence test scores predict how well employees perform in their jobs, and job performance
correlates more highly with intelligence than with factors such as performance during a job
- Intelligence test scores also predict people’s performance on basic cognitive tasks; predictors of
a person’s political and religious attitudes: The more intelligent people are, the more likely they
are to be liberal and atheistic
Is Intelligence One Ability or Many?
A Hierarchy of Abilities
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