PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Somatic Symptom Disorder, Panic Disorder

31 views12 pages
Published on 20 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
CHAPTER 17 THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
Recent studies identified complex interactions between an individual’s genotype, brain chemistry and childhood
environment in the etiology: the causes or origin of a disorder, of psychological disorders
Less severe psychological disorders appear more heavily influenced by environmental factors
More severe disorders appear to be heavily influenced by hereditary and biological factors that disrupt normal
cognitive processes or produce inappropriate emotional reactions
CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
Need for a comprehensive classification system of psychological disorders first recognized by Emil Kraepelin, he
made his version in a textbook of psychiatry published in 1988
The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane, a forerunner of the APA, later
incorporated his ideas into a classification system of its own
What is Abnormal?
Psychological disorders defined by abnormal behaviour, but that is strictly anything away from normal, including
tall people or smart people. But it has taken a pejorative connotation: we use it to refer to characteristics we dislike
or fear
Psychologists stress that the most important feature of a psychological disorder is not abnormal, but maladaptive
Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders
The Psychodynamic Approach
Psychological disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the three components of the mind: id, ego,
superego
The consequent psychological disorders may involve, among other symptoms, extreme anxiety, obsessive thoughts
and compulsive behaviour, depression, distorted perceptions and patterns of thinking and paralysis or blindness to
which there is no physical cure
The Medical Perspective
Based on ideas that psychological disorders are caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system
and that they should be approached for treatment in the same was as physical illness
Biological factors are known at least to contribute to the development of psychological disorders including
schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder
The Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective
Holds that psychological disorders are learned maladaptive behaviours learned that can be understood by focusing
on the environment and a person’s perception of those factors
Therapists from this perspective suggest patients to replace or substitute maladaptive thoughts and behaviours with
more adaptive ones
The Humanistic Perspective
Psychological disorders arise when people perceive that they must earn the positive regard of others
They become oversensitive to the demands and criticisms of others and define their personal value primarily in
terms of others’ reactions to them. Lack confidence in their abilities and feel as if they have no stable, internal value
as a person
The Sociocultural Perspective
Cultures in which people life play a significant role in the development of psychological disorders
Proper treatment requires understanding of cultural issues
Cultural variables influence the nature and extent to which people interpret their own behaviours as (ab)normal
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
The Biopsychosocial Perspective
No one perspective is adequate in accounting for the origins of psychological disorders, this is not to say any of
them are unimportant, different approaches can be combined to form larger perspective
Diathesis-stress model: a causal account of psychological disorders based on the idea that psychological disorders
develop when a person possesses a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that exceed his or her abilities to
cope with them
Biopsychosocial perspective: a view that the causes of psychological disorders can best be understood in terms of
the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors
Biopsychosocial model may use info about thaw way genotypes of people diagnosed with specific psychological
disorders differ from those of individuals who do not have
Related interest may be info about the chemistry of neural pathways in individuals with the disorder and the
correlations between those pathways and the individuals genotype
The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR): a widely used manual for classifying
psychological disorders
Provides descriptions of an individual’s psychological condition using 5 criteria called axes
Axis 1 information on major psychological disorders that require medical attention
Disorders first appearing in infancy, childhood or adolescence; Delirium, dementia, amnestic, and other
cognitive disorders; Psychoactive substance abuse disorders; Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders;
Mood disorders; Anxiety disorders; Somatoform disorders; Factitious disorders; Dissociative disorders;
Sexual and gender identity disorders; Eating disorders; Sleep disorders; Impulse control disorders;
Adjustment disorders
Axis 2 Personality disorders
Axis 3 through 5 provide info about the life of the individual in addition to the basic classification provided by
axes 1 and 2
Axis 3 describes any physical disorders such as skin rashes or high blood pressure
Axis 4 specifies the severity of stress the person has experienced
Axis 5 describes the person’s overall level of psychological, social, or occupational functioning (determines
amount the person’s life has been diminished by the disorder)
Comorbid: the appearance of two or more disorders in a specific person
Some Problems with DSM-IV-TR Classification
Since it is strongly influence by psychiatrists, places emphasis on biological factors which may allow cognitive and
environmental determinants to be overlooked
Not completely reliable, it is like navigating an unfamiliar city with a crude map
Other critics questioned the validity
Rosenhan made up fake symptoms and his group of professional associates and himself were committed
to asylums for average 3 weeks; only the real patients knew they were faking
The Need for Classification
Szasz suggested that we should abandon all attempts to classify and diagnose psychological disorders; saying that
labelling has done more harm than good, for example taking away the responsibility for improvement from the
person
However, proper classification can lead to successful treatment; diseases such as diabetes, syphilis, tetanus, and
malaria only had a cure found after they were reliably diagnosed
Graves’ disease – characterized by irritability, restlessness, confused and rapid thought processes and occasionally
delusions and hallucinations caused by over secretion of thyroxine, a hormone produced by the thyroid gland
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
treatment involves prescription of anti-thyroid drugs or surgical removal of thyroid gland, followed by replacement
doses of thyroxine
Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
11% of Canadians suffer from a psychological disorder or substance abuse problem
Clinical versus Actuarial Diagnosis
Clinical judgements: diagnoses of psychological disorders or predictions of future behaviour based largely on
experts’ experience and knowledge
Actuarial (statistical) judgements: diagnoses of psychological disorders or predictions of future behaviour based
on numerical formulas derived from analyses of prior outcomes
Many health professionals prefer to use the clinical method, but hundreds of studies overwhelmingly show actuarial
judgements to be superior
The criterion measured in these studies included college grade point average, parole violation, response to particular
forms of therapy, length of psychiatric hospitalization and violent behaviour
Actuarial more accurate because they are more reliable (based on precise rule that always produces the same
judgement, while clinical may allow bias, or new data to change reaction)
Disorders Usually Diagnosed in Childhood
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
ADHD: a psychological disorder found in childhood characterized by impulsivity, a lack of attention and
hyperactivity
The symptoms of this ailment must be present before age 7, and are usually present for several years; must be
displayed at home and at school; and must interfere with age-appropriate actions
Despite high findings of heritability, there is no clear indication of how genes and environment might produce the
symptoms
Shaw and colleagues MRI data from 220 children with the disorder over 15 years showed an unusual trend in the
developmental course of cerebral cortical thickness
Kids with ADHD does not reach maximum thickness until age 10 (kids with out 7 or 8), and motor cortex matures
faster than normal
Team of psychologists in Norway proposed a comprehensive theory of its development insufficiency of dopamine
as a modulator in neural pathways involving the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA
Reduced activity in dopaminergic branch of limbic system interferes with normal processes of
reinforcement and extinction which leads to symptoms of delay aversion
Autistic Disorder
Primary symptoms are abnormal development of social interaction and communications, accompanied by
pronounced limitations of activity and interests; symptoms that must appear prior to age 3
Persistent abnormality of social interaction includes failure to use nonverbal behaviours such as eye-contact and
facial expressions
ANXIETY, SOMATOFORM, AND DISSOCIATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
Often referred to as neurosis, Anxiety, somatoform, and dissociative psychological disorders are strategies of
perception and behaviour that have gotten out of hand
Characterized by pathological increases in anxiety which may result from an inadequate number of defence
mechanisms
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Chapter 17 the nature and causes of psychological disorders. Recent studies identified complex interactions between an individual"s genotype, brain chemistry and childhood environment in the etiology: the causes or origin of a disorder, of psychological disorders. Less severe psychological disorders appear more heavily influenced by environmental factors. More severe disorders appear to be heavily influenced by hereditary and biological factors that disrupt normal cognitive processes or produce inappropriate emotional reactions. Need for a comprehensive classification system of psychological disorders first recognized by emil kraepelin, he made his version in a textbook of psychiatry published in 1988. The association of medical superintendents of american institutions for the insane, a forerunner of the apa, later incorporated his ideas into a classification system of its own. Psychological disorders defined by abnormal behaviour, but that is strictly anything away from normal, including tall people or smart people.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.