PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Prenatal Development, Konrad Lorenz

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Published on 22 Apr 2013
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UTSC
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Psychology
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PSYA02H3
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CHAPTER 11: DEVELOPMENT
PSYA02H3
2013
developmental psychology- study of continuity and change across the life span, and in the last century,
developmental psychologists have discovered some amazing things about this metamorphosis
Prenatality- A Womb with a View
- prenatal stage- ends with birth, begins 9 months earlier
Prenatal Development
zygote- fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg, ultimately becomes
gender
- each sperm and egg contains 23 chromosomes, which contain genes, X or Y
- germinal stage is the 2 week period that begins at conception
- zygote migrates back down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the wall of the uterus
- embryonic stage is period that lasts from second week until about the eighth week, zygote is now
embryo
- fetal stage is period that lasts from the ninth week until birth
- embryo has skeleton and muscles, make it capable for movement, during last 2 months, size of fetus
increases
- formation of fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron aka mylenation
- process starts during the fetal stage but doesn't end for years, mylenation of the cortex, continues into
adulthood
- why are humans born with underdeveloped brains?
- human brain has tripled size in 2 million ears of evolution, bigger brains require bigger heads to
house them
- if babies head were close to adult size, baby cant pass through the vagina... omg that would suck :/
- our talents as a human is to adapt to a wide range of novel environments that differ in terms of
climate, social structure, therefore humans come with brains that they develop within an environment
Prenatal Environment
-placenta is organ that physically links the bloodstream of mother and developing embryo or fetus, and
permits exchange of material
- food a woman eats during pregnancy can also shape her childs food preferences
- agents that damage process of development called teratogens, most common is alchohol
- fetal alcohol syndrome developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by mother during
pregnancy
- human brain is operating even as it begins being built, developing fetus can sense stimulation and learn
from it
- wombs are dark because only the brightest light can filter through the mothers abdomen, but fetus can
hear mothers heartbeat, gastronomical sounds
Perceptual and Motor Development
- level of detail that newborn can see at distance of 20 feet is equivalent to level of detail that an adult
can see at 600 feet
- habituation is tendency for organisms to respond less intensely to a stimulus as the frequency of
exposure to that stimulus increases
- newborns are more attentive to social stimuli, mimic facial expressions in the first hour of life
- motor development is the emergence of the ability to execute physical actions such as reaching,
grasping, crawling and walking
CHAPTER 11: DEVELOPMENT
PSYA02H3
2013
- infants born with reflexes, specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of
sensory stimulation
- rooting reflex tendency for infants to move their mouths towards any object
- sucking reflex tendency to suck any object that enters their mouths
- cephalocaudal rule, top to bottom, tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to
the feet, head, arms, trunks,legs
- proximodistal rule, inside outside, tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from center to
periphery, babes control their trunks before their elbows and knees, before hands feet
- motor skills emerge in an orderly sequence, but not a strict timetable, timing influence by factors such
as incentive for reaching, body weight, muscular development, and general level of activity
-a study with hanging mobile shows babies beginning to reach for objects 6 weeks earlier than babies
who did not
- different infants acquire same skill in different way
- two infants, energetic, produced large circular movements of both arms, two who were less energetic
did not
- first step in learning to reach involved learning to lift their arms against force of gravity and extend
them forward
Cognitive Development
- emergence of ability to think and understand
- between infancy and adulthood, children must come to understand how physical world works, how
their minds represent it, and how other minds represent it
Discovering the World
- Piagets 4 stages:
sensorimotor stage
- stage of development that beings at birth and lasts through infancy
- use their ability to move to acquire information about the world in which they live
- construct schemas, which are theories about or models of the way the world works
- assimilation, infants apply their schemas in novel situations
- accommodation, infants revise their schemas in light of new information
- object performance, the idea tht objects continue to exist even when they are not visible is
shown throughout this stage
- infants act as though objects stop existing the moment they are out of sight
- when infants are tested in other ways they demonstrate a sense of object permanence,,
- so basically babies were shown a box placed behind a drawbridge, and some saw
- possible event and impossible event, but most stared into the impossible event
- another experiment was when infants saw 3 lines, line A was blocked yb a block, and line B was
normal, line C was what was surprising bc it looked like line A, they think line A was continous
preoperational stage
- stage of development that begins about 2 years and ends at 6
- childhood happens,
- child learns about physical, concrete objects. learns motor skills but des not understand
conservation of physical properties, child begins this stage by thinking egocentrically but ends with basic
understanding of other minds
CHAPTER 11: DEVELOPMENT
PSYA02H3
2013
- preoperational kids cannot grasp this notion bc of centration, the tendency to focus on just one
property of an object to the exclusion of all others
- children focus on the length and lines of the eggs without considering the amount of space
between each egg
- they also fail to think about reversibility, do not consider the fact that operation that made the
line of eggs longer could be reversed
- they have minds and that these minds contain mental representation of the world
concrete operational stage
- stage of development that begins at 6 and ends at 11, child learns ho various actions or
- operations can affect or transform those objects
- quantity is property of set concrete objects that does not change when operation such as
spreading out alters the sets appearance
- this is the child's conservation, which is the notion that the quantitative properties of an object
are invariant despite changes in the objects appearance
- concrete stage develops and realize the way world appears is not necessarily the way the
world really is
- once children can make distinction between objects and their mental representation of objects, they
can understand some operations change what an object looks like without changing what the object is
like
- can solve variety of physical problems
Formal operational stage
- stage of development that begins around 11 and lasts through adulthood
- can solve nonphysical problems with similar ease
- able to reasons systematically with abstract concepts like love and liberty
- ability to generate, consider, reason about, or operate on abstract objects is hallmark of formal
operations
Discovering other Minds
- egocentrism, the failure to understand the world appears differently to different observers
Perceptions and Beliefs
- false believe tests, children fall for them every time
- egocentrism colours the understanding of children's perspective on themselves
Desires and Emotions
- very young children understand tht other people have different desires
- some take long to understand that other people may have emotional reactions unlike their own
Theory of Mind
- idea that human behaviours is guided by mental representations
- autism is difficulty communicating with other people and making friends
- until children acquire theory of mind, they are not generally susceptible to phenomenon of contagious
yawning
- people with autism can't catch others yawns

Document Summary

Prenatal stage- ends with birth, begins 9 months earlier. Prenatal development zygote- fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg, ultimately becomes gender. Each sperm and egg contains 23 chromosomes, which contain genes, x or y. Germinal stage is the 2 week period that begins at conception. Zygote migrates back down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the wall of the uterus. Embryonic stage is period that lasts from second week until about the eighth week, zygote is now embryo. Fetal stage is period that lasts from the ninth week until birth. Embryo has skeleton and muscles, make it capable for movement, during last 2 months, size of fetus increases. Formation of fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron aka mylenation. Process starts during the fetal stage but doesn"t end for years, mylenation of the cortex, continues into adulthood. Why are humans born with underdeveloped brains? house them.