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Chapter 16.3

PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 16.3: Psychoactive Drug, Tardive Dyskinesia, Erectile Dysfunction


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Kyle Danielson
Chapter
16.3

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Biomedical Therapies
Psychopharmacotherapy
Psychopharmacotherapy: the use of drugs to attempt to manage or reduce client’s sympto
Most frequently used biomedical option, and is often employed in conjunction with
some form of psychological therapy
o
Drug Treatments
Psychotropic Drugs
Psychotropic drugs: medications designed to alter psychological functioning
Blood-Brain Barrier
Blood-brain barrier: a network of tightly packed cells that only allow specific types of
substance to move from the bloodstream to the brain in order to protect delicate brain ce
against harmful infections and other substances
o
After crossing this barrier, psychotropic drugs then affect one or more
neurotransmitters.
o
The specific neurotransmitter(s) targeted by a drug will determine which disorders w
be responsive to that medication.
How Psychotropic Drugs Reach the Brain
Chapter 16.3 (Biomedical Therapies)
Friday, February 7, 2020
9:06 AM

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Antidepressant drugs: medications designed to elevate mood and reduce other symptom
depression
o
Target areas of the brain that, when functioning normally, are rich in monoamine
neurotransmitters—serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Antidepressants
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs): works by deactivating monoamine oxidase and
enzyme that break down serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine at the synaptic clefts o
nerve cells
o
First type of antidepressant to be developed and widely used
o
When MAO is inhibited, fewer dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine
neurotransmitters are metabolized, which in turn leaves more of them available for
synaptic transmission
o
Used less frequently than other antidepressants, in part because they can cause
many side effects, some quite dangerous, especially when they interact with other
medications and certain types of foods
Eg. Aged cheeses, smoked meats, alcoholic beverages
Tricyclic Antidepressants
Tricyclic antidepressants: appear to work by blocking the reuptake of serotonin and
norepinephrine of the neurotransmitter serotonin
o
Among the earliest types of antidepressants on the market
o
Cause many undesirable side effects, including nausea, weight gain, sexual dysfuncti
and even seizures
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): affect nervous system by blocking reuptake
serotonin in neurons
o
In 1987, one such drug arrived: fluoxetine AKA Prozac
o
Alleviate some proportion of the symptoms of depression in some clients, although
they also come with certain side effects
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