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Chapter 11

PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Revised Version, Theory Of Multiple Intelligences, Scientific Method

Course Code
Oren Amitay

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Chapter 11 Intelligence and Thinking
Chapter Outline of Theories of Intelligence
-Spearman’s two-factor theory states that intelligence consists of general factor and specific task-
related factors
-Sternberg’s triarchic theory is example of information processing approach
emphasizes importance of adaptive behaviour in a natural environment
-Gardner’s theory emphasizes categories of aptitudes and skills (both physical and cognitive)
Intelligence Testing
-Binet developed a series of tests, Stanford-Binet Scale
used to identify children that need special attention
-Binet and Simon developed the concept of norms with which to compare a particular individual
also formulate mental age
-Wechsler developed intelligence test for adults (WAIS) and children (WISC)
-reliability of modern intelligence tests is excellent
-their validity is difficult to assess because there is no single criterion of intelligence
-intelligence tests are used to identify special student so they can benefit from appropriate
educational programs
-intelligence test may be abused if teachers expect little from students labelled asunintelligent
fail to encourage them to achieve the most
The Roles of Heredity and Environment
-variability in intellectual abilities is produced by three sources: 1) environmental variability, 2)
genetic variability, 3) interaction between the two
-environmental variability is influenced by factors that affect prenatal development and physical
development during childhood
sources of formal education and intellectual stimulation can have a factor
-genetic variability affects structure and development of brain
affect resistance to diseases
-environmental factors play a larger role than hereditary factors in intelligence
-psychologists interested in thinking process have studied formation and recognition of concepts,
deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, and problem solving
-concepts exist at basic, subordinate, and superordinate level
-deductive reasoning consists of applying general principles to specific instances
requires ability to construct and manipulate mental models
-inductive reasoning is inferring general principles from facts
people use hypothesis to develop principles
-problem solving requires concept of goal and evaluation of behaviours that bring us closer to the
final goal
-psychologists define intelligence as ability to learn and remember information

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to recognize concepts and their relations
to apply information to their own behaviour in adaptive way
-definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgements
-study of intelligence is dominated by three main approaches: 1) differential approach, 2)
developmental approach, 3) information processing
-differential approach identifies and measures individual differences in ability to solve problems,
skills that are used in classroom
tests that ask people to define words, explain proverbs, solve arithmetic problem, discover
similarities in shapes and patterns
-developmental approach test how people learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the
-information processing approach focuses on skills people use to think and solve problems
-Sternberg’s theory of successful intelligence focuses one ability to analyze and manage personal
strengths and weaknesses
Theories of Intelligence
-differential approach investigates nature of intelligence by studying how people differ of tests of
intellectual abilities
-IQ scores is a single number score of intelligence test
although intelligence test provides a single score, intelligence is not a single, general
-some intellectual abilities are independent of one another
a person that does well in verbal ability can do bad in math
Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory
-Spearman believed that performance of intelligence test is determined by two factors: 1) general
factor (g), 2) specific factor to a particular test (s)
-general factor comprises three qualitative principles: 1) apprehension of experience, 2) eduction
of relations, 3) eduction of correlates
-eduction is process of figuring out from given facts
-solving analogies requires all three principles
-apprehension of experience is ability to perceiver and understand what we perceive
-eduction of relation is ability to perceive relation
-eduction of correlates is ability to apply a rule in one case to a similar case
-different tests that are assigned to measure a particular type of ability
each test is said to be unrelated to scores of another test so correlation among the tests is
approximately zero
-tests with different form that measure a single ability, their scores are perfectly related,
intercorrelations are close to 1
-intercorrelations between a group of tests of intellectual abilities are neither zero nor one
most of the tests are moderately correlated, range from 0.3 to 0.7

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Evidence from Factor Analysis
-Spearman and Pearson developed statistical procedure known as factor analysis
allow researchers to identify commonalities among group of tests
-common factors are abilities that affect people’s performance on more than one test
-if person’s scores on several tests correlate well with one another, then the tests measure the
same factor
-factor analysis determines which sets of tests form groups
-factor loading is the value of each factor has on the test
somewhat like correlation coefficient that express the degree to which a particular test is
related to a particular factor
-factor analysis provides cues about nature of intelligence, but cannot provide a theory of
cannot reveal other abilities that are not measured by the tests it is used to investigate
-factors of different abilities are called general intelligence
-Thurstone also performed factor analysis
-identified seven factors: verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number, spatial visualization,
memory, reasoning, and perceptual speed
-thought that his analysis contradicted Spearman’s general factor idea
-Eysenck suggested that second factor analysis could be performed on Thurstone’s factors
if a common factor is found among the factors, Spearman’s general factor would receive
-if Thurston’es seven factors have a second-order factor in common, the factor is conceived as
general intelligence
-Cattell performed a second-order factor analysis and found two major factors: 1) fluid
intelligence (gf) and 2) crystallized intelligence (gc)
-fluid intelligence is culture-free task
ability to see relations among objects and ability to see patterns in a repeating series of items
native capacity for intellectual performance
potential ability to learn and solve problems
-crystallized intelligence is tasks that require people to have learned information from their
culture, like vocabulary and information learned in schools
crystallized intelligence is what a person has accomplished through the use of fluid
intelligence, what a person has learned
-but Horn believes that both factors are learned and based to a degree on heredity
fluid intelligence is based on casual learning
crystallized intelligence is based on cultural, school learning
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