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Chapter 10

PSYA02 Chapter 10: Psychology Chapter 10.docx

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Steve Joordens

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Psychology Chapter 10
-Cross-sectional design: used to measure and compare samples of people at different
ages at a given point in time. They’re cheap, quick and easy to administer but people
can suffer from cohort effects: differences between people that result from being born
in different time periods
-Example: studying cognition from infancy to adulthood, compare people of different age
-Longitudinal Design: follows the development of the same set of individuals through
time. This study fixes cohort effects but following a single group of people for a long
period of time can be very costly and time-consuming. It often suffers from the problem
of attrition: which occurs when participants drop out of a study ( lose interest, move
- To account for both slow and rapid periods of growth, development is seen as a
progression of abrupt transitions in physical or mental skills, combined with slower
- This pattern described as a series of stages
- Transition from stage to stage involves rapid shifts in thinking and behaving and
fundamental shifts in types of abilities a child can perform

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- Change occurs when individuals are ready for it, certain times in development when
persons are particularly sensitive to stimulation that facilitates physiological,
neurological, behavioural and cognitive development
-Sensitive period: window of time during which exposure to a specific type of
environmental stimulation is needed for normal development of a specific ability
-Example: infants exposed to speech first few years of life to become fluent in language
-Zygote: initial cell formed when egg and sperm fuse
- This is beginning of germinal stage: first phase of prenatal development which spans
from contraception to two weeks
- Zygote divides into two, four, eigth, etc cells and travel down to uterus via fallopian tubes
and implant into uterine lining
-Blastocyst: ball of cells splits into two groups- inner group= fetus, out group= placenta
(nutrient and waste exchange)
-Embryonic stage: spans weeks 2-8, during which embryo begins developing major
physical structures (heart and nervous system) and limbs
-Fetal stage: weeks 8-birth, during which skeletal organ and nervous systems become
more developed, muscles develop and fetus respond to external cues
- first major divisions of brains seen at 4 weeks (forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain), more
apparent structures by week 11
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