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Chapter 9 and 10

PSYA02 Chapter 9 and 10: Lecture Notes Psychology Part 02.docx

Course Code
Steve Joordens
9 and 10

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Lecture Notes
Psychology Part 02
CHAPTER 9 :Intelligent testing
Nomothetic research: research aims to understand the “average” human
Research focuses on “ Individual differences : research tries to understand why and how some
humans differ from other
Benefits of measuring “intelligence”:
1) Whether certain educational approaches lead to higher levels of success
2) Tailor a child’s education to their current abilities
Philip Rushton
did research on differences between races and genders
Intelligence: Asians> Caucasian (White )> African American
Physical Strength: African American> Caucasian (White )> Asians
Scientists revealed that he is biased – used only data that fits what he wants
We can think of intelligence as different characteristics rather than just one – same as athelic
abilities “ they vary very much” from being baseball player – to car racing
Thurstone (1938) found 7 factors; verbal comprehension, verbal
fluency, number, spatial visualization, memory, reasoning, and
perceptual speed.
Cattell broke the 7 factors into two factors
a. fluid intelligence (gf) (bright without education ) –street intelligence – genetics
b. crystal intelligence(gc) (intelligence encouraged by education)– school intelligence-
CHAPTER 10: Development
Cognitive development: birth  around 25 ,
Cognitive decline: old age decline of cognitive abilities
> Prenatal; 38 weeks (9 months) of pregnancy
> Zygote (first two weeks):
egg +sperm 1 st cell keeps dividing and differentiating forming 200 diff. kind of cells
(blood , nerve cells …..)
> Embryonic (two to eight weeks):
heart begins to beat
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