Fixation a brief interval between saccadic eye movements during which the eye does not move; visual information is gathered during this time. Phonetic reading reading by decoding the phonetic significance of letter strings; Whole-word reading reading by recognizing a word as a whole, sight reading . Readers have two basic ways to recognize words: phonetic and whole-word recognition. During reading, phonetic and whole-word reading are engaged in race. If the word is familiar whole word method, but if the word is unfamiliar the phonetic method. Surface dyslexia- a reading disorder in which people can read words phonetically but have difficulty reading irregularly spelled words by the whole-word method. Phonological dyslexia a reading disorder in which people can read familiar wods but have difficulty reading unfamiliar words or pronounceable non-words because they cannot sound out words. Direct dyslexia a language disorder caused by brain damage in which people can read words aloud without understanding them.