PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13-14: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Pituitary Gland, Cognitive Dissonance

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10 Mar 2015
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PSYA02 Chapters 13 & 14
Chapter 13: Social Psychology
Module 13.1: The Power of the Situation: Social Influences on Behaviour
Mimicry: Taking on for ourselves the behaviours, emotional displays, and facial expressions of
others
Chameleon Effect: Describes how people mimic others non-consciously, automatically copying
other’s behaviours even without realizing it
Social Norms: The (usually unwritten) guidelines for how to behave in social contexts
Social Loafing: Occurs when an individual puts less effort into working on a task with others
Social Facilitation: Occurs when one’s performance is affected by the presence of others
Groupthink: Refers to the stifling of diversity that occurs when individuals are not able to
express their true perspectives, instead having to focus on agreeing with others and maintaining
harmony in the group
Normative Influence: A social pressure to adopt a group’s perspective in order to be accepted,
rather than rejected, by a group
Informational Influence: Occurs when people internalize the values and beliefs of the group,
coming to believe the same things and feel the same ways about themselves
Bystander Effect: Describes the counterintuitive finding that the presence of other people
actually reduces the likelihood of helping behaviour
Diffusion of Responsibility: Occurs when the responsibility for taking action is spread across
more than one person, thus making no single individual feel personally responsible
Pluralistic Ignorance: Occurs when there is a disjunction between the private beliefs of
individuals and the public behaviour they display to others
Social Roles: More specific sets of expectations for how someone in a specific position should
behave
Module 13.2: Social Cognition
Explicit Processes: Correspond roughly to “conscious” thought, are deliberate, effortful,
relatively slow, and generally under our intentional control
Implicit Processes: Comprise our “unconscious” thought; they are intuitive, automatic, effortless,
very fast, and operate largely outside of our intentional control
Dual Process Models: Models of behaviour that account for both implicit and explicit processes
Person Perception: The processes by which individuals categorize and form judgements about
other people
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Thin Slices of Behaviour: Very small samples of a person’s behaviour; what we use to make
very rapid implicit judgements of other people
Self-fulfilling Prophecies: Occurs when a first impression (or an expectation) affects one’s
behaviour, and then that affects other people’s behaviour, leading one to “confirm” the initial
impression or expectation
False Consensus Effect: The tendency to project the self-concept onto the social world
Naïve Realism: The tendency to assume that the way we see things is the way that they are
Self-serving Biases: Are biased ways of processing self-relevant information to enhance our
positive self-evaluation
Internal Attribution: Whereby the observer explains the behaviour of the actor in terms of some
innate quality of that person
External Attribution: Whereby the observer explains the actor’s behaviour as the result of the
situation
Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE): The tendency to over-emphasize internal (disposition)
attributions, and under-emphasize external (situational) factors
Ingroups: Groups we feel positively toward and identify with
Outgroups: Are those “other” groups that we do not identify with
Ingroup Bias: As positive biases toward the self get extended to include one’s ingroups, people
become motivated to see their ingroups as superior to their outgroups
Minimal Group Paradigm: Examines how easily people will form social categories, US vs Them,
even using criteria that are meaningless
Stereotype: A cognitive structure, a set of beliefs about the characteristics that are held by
members of a specific social group; these beliefs function as schemas, serving to guide how we
process information about our social world
Prejudice: An affective, emotionally driven process, including negative attitudes toward and
critical judgments of other groups
Discrimination: Behaviour that disfavours or disadvantages members of a certain social group in
some way
Implicit Associations Test (IAT): Measures how fast people can respond to images or words
flashed on a computer screen
Contact Hypothesis: Predicts that social contact between members of different groups is
extremely important to overcoming prejudice
Module 13.3: Attitudes, Behaviour, and Effective Communication
Elaboration Likelihood Model: Predicts that when audiences are sufficiently motivated to pay
attention to a message (ie they care about the issue) and they have the opportunity for careful
processing (ie they have the cognitive resources available to understand the message), they will
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