Chapter 11 TEXTBOOK NOTES- MIDTERM REVIEW (Intelligence)

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23 Feb 2011
Chapter 11: Intelligence and Thinking
- Suffered stroke in his right hemisphere which paralyzed the left side of his body
- Was intelligent and his verbal intelligence was remarkable
- Has a lack of reaction to his symptomsÆwhen asked about his lifestyle he thinks he can still go
on walks for two hours a day and finish his hiking trail in the next six months even though he is
paralyzed from the left side
- ,lv}ÁZ]oÇÌµZvv}µvvÁZZuv~v[µÁ}vd two
- }v[]o]Ç}learn and remember information
- to recognize concepts and their relations
- to be able to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way
- definition greatly depends on cultural judgments
Study of intelligence is dominated by three main approaches:
1) The differential approach Î favours development of tests that identify and measure individual
- Tests that use skills important in the classroom
- Define words, explain problems
- Describe similarities in shapes and patterns
- People vary in terms of abilities to learn (words, solve problems)
- We can best investigate the nature of intelligence by studying the ways in which people differ
on tests
2) Developmental approachÎ studies the way in which children learn to perceive, manipulate and
think about the world
- Jean Piaget is known for this approach
3) Information Processing approachÎ focuses on the type of skills people use to think and to
solve various types of problems
and manage personal strengths and weaknesses) will be the focus of this chapter.
Is intelligence a global trait or is it a composite of separate, independent abilities?
- t}µo]vPouµ}(}u}v[Zo]]o]]µ(µo]v]]vP]voo]Pv
related to a different field? Example: athletic ability consist of a variety of skills and difference
sports require different combinations of skillsÎ being a professional ice hockey player and then
going on to become a baseball playerÎ some researchers promote the idea that some
intellectual abilities are completely independent of the other
- A person can be excellent at spatial reasoning but poor at solving verbal analogies (their specific
intelligence in one area cannot be applied to other areas=independent)
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There are three theories of intelligence:
1)^uv[dÁ}-Factor Theory 2)Information Processing Theory 3) Neuropsychological Theory
1) ^uv[dÁ}-Factor Theory
- W}}Z}v[(}uv}v}(]vooµo]o]Ç]u]vÇÁ}
The g factor (general factor) and the s factor (factor specific to a particular test)
- G factorV}uu}v}oo]vooµolU}u]}(Z^Yµo]]À]v]o}(
}Pv]]}v_Wapprehension of experience, eduction of relations, and eduction of correlates
(eduction is the process of drawing or bringing out, figuring out from given facts)
- Solving analogies requires all three principles. For example:
¾ apprehension of experienceW}o[]o]Ç}]ÀvµvvÁZ
they experience
ž eduction of relations refers to the ability to perceive the relation between
LAWYER and CLIENT (lawyer works for the client)
ž eduction of correlates refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case
to a similar case= thus the person who a doctor works for is obviously a PATIENT
Note: Eduction, not education
- Spearman advocated the use of analogy problems in intelligence testing
- If we administer 10 different tests of intellectual abilities to a group of peopleÆeach test
measures a separate, independent ability, the scores these people make on any one test will be
unrelated to their scores on any otherÆthe correlations among the tests will be approx. Zero
- HoweverÎif the tests measure abilities that are simply different manifestations of a single trait,
the scores will be perfectly related; the intercorrelations will be close to 1.0
- Most of these tests are moderately correlated ( a person who scores well on a vocab test also
tends to score better than avg. on other tests such as spatial reasoning/arithmetic)
- Correlations among various tests of intellectual ability usually range from .30 to .70
- Spearman concluded that a general factor (g) accounted for the moderate correlations among
different tests of ability
- /v]À]µo[}}v]µov}vÁ}Z]vPW }v[](]]o]Ç(s) on the
particular test (such as spatial reasoning) and his or her level of the g factor/ general reasoning
Karl Pearson and Spearman developed a statistical procedure known as factor analysis(permits
researchers to identify underlying commonalities/ common factors among groups of tests).
- }uu}v(}A]µo]o]]Z((}o[(}uv}vu}Zv}v
See table 11.1 on page 329
- Number in three columns in the table are called factor loadings
- For various subtests on factor A, the largest factor loading is for vocabulary (verbal subtests make the
most important contribution to factor A so we might be tempted to call this factor verbal ability).
- Digit span has a heavy loading on factor B (.84) and arithmetic and digit symbol have moderate
loadings. Factor B can perhaps be related to maintaining information in short-term memory and
manipulating numbers
- Factor C appears to be determined mainly by block design, object assembly, picture completion, and
picture arrangementÆ good name for this factor might be spatial ability
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Limitations/derivations (Cattell and Horn) :
Factor analysis cannot provide a theory of intelligence. The names given to the factors are up to the
investigator and therefore include a degree of subjective judgment. A factor analysis can be informative
only about tests to which it is applied, it will never reveal other important abilities that are not
measured by the tests it is used to investigate
- Horn and Cattell performed a second-order factor analysis and found not one but two major
Fluid intelligence (gf) and crystallized intelligence (gc).
- Fluid intelligence: relatively culture-free tasks such as those that measure the ability to see
relations among objects or the ability to see patterns in a repeating series of items
- Crystallized intelligence: defined by tasks that require people to have acquired information from
their culture, such as vocabulary and the kind of information learned in schools
- Cattell reP(oµ]]voo]Pvo}oÇo}}v[v]À]Ç(}]vooµo
performance (the potential ability to learn and solve problems.
- Cattell regards crystallized intelligence as what a person has accomplished through the use of
his or her fluid intelligence-what is learned
Horn differs with Cattell and cites evidence suggesting that both factors are learned but are also based
on a degree on heredityÆ gf is based on casual learning and gc is based on cultural, school-type
- According to Cattell, gc depends on gf. Fluid intelligence supplies the native ability, whereas
experience with language and exposure to books, school, and other learning opportunities
develop crystallized intelligence
- If two people have the same experiences, the one with the greater fluid intelligence will develop
the greater crystallized intelligence
- A person with a higher fluid intelligence exposed to an intellectually impoverished environment
will develop a poor or mediocre crystallized intelligence
2) An Information Processing Theory of Intelligence
- According to Robert Sternberg, the degree of success that people achieve in life is strongly
affected by the extent to which they effectively analyze and manage their unique combinations
of strengths and weaknesses
- Sternberg devised a triarchic (ruled by three) theory of intelligence
- Three parts of the theory deal with three aspects of intelligence: analytic intelligence, creative
intelligence and practical intelligence
Analytic intelligence: the mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks (components
revealed by the factor analyses of verbal ability and deductive reasoning are facets of analytic
Sternberg suggests that these components serve three functions.
- Metacomponents (transcending components): processes by which people decide the nature of
an intellectual problem select a strategy to solve it and allocate their resources (example: good
readers vary the amount of time they spend on a text according to how much information they
need to extract from it). This decision is controlled by a metacomponent of intelligence.
- Performance components: the processes actually used to perform the taskÆword recognition
and working memory
- Knowledge acquisition components: those that the person uses to gain new knowledge by sifting
out relevant information and integrating it with what he or she already knows
Creative intelligence: the ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve familiar problems
automatically(problems that have been encountered before)
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