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Chapter 18

chapter 18

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Chapter 18
The Treatment of Mental Disorders
Mental Disorders and Psychotherapy
Early Treatment of Mental Disorders:
-trephining: surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a living
person so that evil spirits would leave victims head
-painful + degrading practises: insults, exorcism, beatings, starving, browning etc.
-Pinel experimented successfully with treating patients with mental illness well
-Charcothypnosis as means of treatment
-eclectic approach: form of therapy where the therapist uses whatever method
they feel works best for a particular client at a particular time.
Insight Therapies
-insight therapy: people are normal but learn maladaptive thought patterns and
emotions which are revealed in maladaptive behavioursbehaviour is a symptom of
deeper underlying psychological problems and once the cause is understood, the
problems will stop
-insight leads to cure
-Types of insight therapies
Type Psychologi
isFreud -Aims to provide client with insight into their
unconscious motivations + impulses
-gains insight through: dreams, physical problems,
memory, speech, cognitive + emotional reactions to
-main goal: interpret clues about origins of intrapsychic
conflict given by client
Free association: client encouraged to speak freely,

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without censoring possibly embarrassing or socially
unacceptable thoughts or ideas
resistance: develops during therapy where the client
becomes defensive, unconsciously attempts to halt
further insight by censoring their true feelings
transference: client begins to project powerful
attitudes and emotions onto therapist
Countertransference: when therapist projects their
emotions on to the clientunhealthy
mic Therapy
-place less emphasis on sexual factors during
development and more emphasis on social +
interpersonal experiences
-address issues in present life rather than just
-ego= plays more active role in influencing persons
thoughts + actions and so less constrained by
-can be brieffocuses on schemata that client has
about interpersonal relationships and attempts to
modify the incorrect ones or ones that prevent client
from developing fulfilling relationships with others
therapy-provide client with greater understanding of his or her
unique potential for personal growth and self-
Types: client-centered and Gestalt
Rogers -client allowed to decide what to talk about without
strong direction and judgement from the therapist
-incongruence: discrepancy between clients real and
ideal selves
-goal: reduce incongruence by fostering experiences
that will make attainment of ideal self possible. This is
helped when therapist shows empathy (ability to
perceive world from anothers perspective).
-unconditional positive regard: therapist tries to
convery to client that their worth as a human is not
dependent on anything they think or do or feel.
TherapyFritz Perls-emphasizes unity of mind and body by teaching client
to get in touch with unconscious bodily sensations and
emotional feelings.
-therapist is confrontational and challenges client to
deal honestly with their emotions

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-dreams are rich source of info
-empty chair technique: client imagines they are talking
to someone sitting in the chair beside them
-for insight therapy to work, client must be intelligent, articulate, motivated to work
hard so this does not apply to many people with active psychoses and those with less
money and time.
Behaviour and Cognitive Behaviour Therapies
-insight therapies are based on the assumption that understanding leads to
behavioural change but this is not always true.
-behaviour therapists: people learn maladaptive or self-defeating behaviour in the
same way they learn adaptive behaviour. Undesirable behaviour is the problem, not
just the reflection of the problem.
-use extensions of classical and operant conditioning principles
Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning
-classical conditioning: previous neutral stimulus comes to elicit same response as a
stimulus that naturally elicits that response because the neutral stimulus reliably
predicts the stimulus response.
-systematic desensitization: method of treatment where client is trained to relax
in presence of increasingly fearful stimuli.
-1st step: create hierarchy of anxiety-related stimuli
-2nd step: trained to achieve complete relaxation
task: learn to respond quickly to suggestions to feel relaxed and peaceful so that
these suggestions can elicit an immediate relaxation response.
--must pair anxiety producing stimuli with instructions to relax to reduce the fear.
-implosion therapy: tries to rid people of fears by arousing them intensely until
their responses diminish through habituation and they learn that nothing bad
-flooding treatment: client encounters the object of their fear
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