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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 TEXTBOOK NOTES - MIDTERM REVIEW (Motivation and Emotion)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Chapter
13

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Chapter 13 Motivation and Emotion
Motivation: a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, and persistence of an
individuals behaviour
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
Proactive forward-looking
oReinforcement
oMotivated to gain a reinforce or to avoid an aversive event
o(i.e. food, pain, smiles, frowns)
Reactive response to conditions present at the time
oWhy reinforcers have their effects
Biological Needs
Regulatory behaviours: brings physiological conditions back to normal, restoring
condition of homeostasis
oEating, drinking, hunting, shivering, building a fire, and putting on a warm
coat
Homeostasis: when physiological characteristics are regulated so that they remain
at their optimum level
oBody temperature, blood pressure
Regulatory system has four essential features:
oSystem variable: variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism
Temperature in a heating system
oSet point: optimum value of the system variable in regulatory mechanism
Human body temperature set point 37 degrees celcius
oDetector: a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from
its set point
oCorrectional mechanism: the mechanism that is capable of restoring the
system variable to the set point
Room temperature example
oNegative feedback: the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or
terminate that action.
Rise in room temperature causes the heater to turn off
oDrive reduction hypothesis: hypothesis that a drive (resulting from
physiological need or deprivation) produces an unpleasant state that causes
an organism to engage in motivated behaviours. Reduction of drive is
assumed to be reinforced.
Nature of motivation
Hunger serves as a drive: a condition that is often caused by
physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium, that energizes
the organisms behaviour
The act of eating reduces hunger and serves as a drive
reduction in reinforcing
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Drive is always impossible to measure
Many events we experience as reinforcing are exciting, this serves as drive
increasing.
The experiences we want to repeat (that is, the ones we find reinforcing) increase our
level of arousal, not decrease.
Physiology of Reinforcement
Electrical brain stimulations that connects neurons and discriminative stimulus
Reinforcement system consists of neurons that release dopamine as the transmitter
substance
Optimum-Level Theory
Similar to negative reinforcement: removal or avoidance of aversive stimuli
Optimum-level hypothesis: organisms will perform behaviour that restores the
level of arousal to an optimum level.
oDiversive exploration: response to understimulation (boredom) that
increases diversity of stimuli an organism tries to come in contact with
oSpecific exploration: response to overstimulation that leads to the needed
item, decreasing the organisms drive level
PRESERVANCE
The tendency to continue to perform a behaviour even when it is not being
reinforced.
Effects of Intermittent Reinforcement
oReinforced and unreinforced responses
Reinforced response occurs only after a series of unreinforced
responses, resistance to extinction is enhanced.
Same number of unreinforced responses, no reinforcers occurring after
long series of unreinforced; no behaviour that is nearly resistant to
extinction.
oEnvironmental stimuli that are present during extinction become aversive
Animals acquire responses if they are allowed to escape environments
when extinction is scheduled motivational effects frustration
If another animal is present, the learners response undergoes
extinction and the other animal may be attacked extinction-induced
aggression
Overjustification Hypothesis
oThe superfluous application of extrinsic rewards to intrinsically motivated
behaviour will undermine intrinsic motivation.
Drawing intrinsic motivation
Played with art materials without extrinsic motivation
Conditions:
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Produce a drawing to win a prize prize was contingent on
childs performance
Produce a draw, no prize unexpectedly received a prize
Neither offered nor given a prize
Results:
Children who received a prize played with drawing less than
other groups less intrinsic motivation
Unexpected prize children same amount of drawing, no
change no shift from intrinsic to extrinsic motivation
oWhen rewards are used to challenge and to benefit the learner, they are
effective motivators.
Learned Helplessness
oA response to exposure to an inescapable aversive stimulus, characterized by
reduced ability to learn a solvable avoidance task; thought to play a role in
the development of some psychological disturbances.
oNo appetitive stimulus will occur whether they do anything or not
oMay lead to depression, motivational level decreasing
EATING
What Starts a Meal?
Physiological factors: hunger pangs the empty stomach rubs against the walls
odepletion of the body’s store of nutrients
oglycogen: an insoluble carbohydrate that can be synthesized from glucose or
converted to it; used to store nutrients
oadipose: fat tissue converted into triglycerides (fat)
oglycerol concerts into glucose
oglucostatic hypothesis: hunger is caused by a low level or availability of
glucose, a condition that is monitored by specialized sensory neurons
oDecrease in blood sugar detected by receptors on neurons in the brain 
glucostats activates when we feel hungry
oLiver contains receptors on when it feels hungry; brain has neurons to detect
levels of glucose
Culture and Social Factors
oEnvironmental stimuli: Western culture consumes food 3 times a day
oWhat we eat is also factored by cultures and what the family eats
What Stops a Meal?
Physiological factors immediate effects of eating, long-term effects
oStimulation from receptors of a distended stomach
oLining of the stomach with fluids that made them not able to taste altered
how much they ate.
oIntestines and bloodstream effected by receptors
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