Drive is always impossible to measure
Many events we experience as reinforcing are exciting, this serves as drive
The experiences we want to repeat (that is, the ones we find reinforcing) increase our
level of arousal, not decrease.
Physiology of Reinforcement
Electrical brain stimulations that connects neurons and discriminative stimulus
Reinforcement system consists of neurons that release dopamine as the transmitter
Similar to negative reinforcement: removal or avoidance of aversive stimuli
Optimum-level hypothesis: organisms will perform behaviour that restores the
level of arousal to an optimum level.
oDiversive exploration: response to understimulation (boredom) that
increases diversity of stimuli an organism tries to come in contact with
oSpecific exploration: response to overstimulation that leads to the needed
item, decreasing the organism’s drive level
The tendency to continue to perform a behaviour even when it is not being
Effects of Intermittent Reinforcement
oReinforced and unreinforced responses
Reinforced response occurs only after a series of unreinforced
responses, resistance to extinction is enhanced.
Same number of unreinforced responses, no reinforcers occurring after
long series of unreinforced; no behaviour that is nearly resistant to
oEnvironmental stimuli that are present during extinction become aversive
Animals acquire responses if they are allowed to escape environments
when extinction is scheduled motivational effects – frustration
If another animal is present, the learner’s response undergoes
extinction and the other animal may be attacked extinction-induced
oThe superfluous application of extrinsic rewards to intrinsically motivated
behaviour will undermine intrinsic motivation.
Drawing intrinsic motivation
Played with art materials without extrinsic motivation