Chapter 14 TEXTBOOK NOTES - MIDTERM REVIEW (Personality)

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2 Mar 2011
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Chapter 14 Personality
Personality: a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and
situations and differentiates one person from another.
TRAIT THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Personality Types and Traits
Hippocrates first Greek physician to explain differences in personality in 4th
century C.E.
oThen refined by Galen in 2nd century C.E.
4 humours:
oYellow bile choleric people bad-tempered and irritable
oBlack bile melancholic people gloomy and pessimistic
oPhlegm phlegmatic people sluggish, calm, unexcitable
oBlood sanguine people cheerful and passionate
Personality types: difference categories into which personality characteristics can
be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences or physical
experiences
Personality trait: an enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a
particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations
Identification of Personality Traits
Influential trait categorization models: the theories of Gordon Allport,
Raymond Cattell, and Hans Eysenck, five factor model
Gordon Allports Search for Traits
oBelieved traits were neuropsychological properties that led to behavioural
consistencies
oAll traits have equal influence on their possessors
Cardinal traits: characterizes a strong unifying influence on a persons
behaviour
(i.e. Hitlers relentless exercise of oppressive power)
Central traits: less singular in their influence on people, and capture
important characterizations of an individual
(i.e. when someone is honest and warm to distinguish them
from others)
Secondary traits: characteristics that have minor influences on
behaviour
(i.e. persons tendency to frequently change jobs)
Raymond Cattell: Sixteen Personality Factors
oUsed Allports 18,000 trait list as a starting point
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oNarrowed down 16 personality factors (source traits where personalities
are first built) from surveys
Hans Eysenck: Three Factors
oBipolar dimensions:
Extroversion: seeks the company of others; spontaneous, outgoing,
high level of activity, highly social
Introversion: avoids the company of people; shy, inhibited, cautious
High end of neuroticism: anxious, worried, full of guilt
Low end of neuroticism emotional stability: relaxed and at
peace with oneself
Psychoticism: aggressive, egocentric, anti-social nature
Self-control: kind, considerate, obedient to laws
The Five-Factor Model
oPersonality is composed of 5 primary dimensions:
Neuroticism
Extroversion
Openness
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Measured by neuroticism, extraversion, and openness
personality inventory (NEO-PI-R)
oConsists of 240 items that can describe a person
oShows personality is hereditary through twins studies
The Dark Triad Criminal Personality Type
oMachiavellianism: skill at manipulating others socially
oPsychopathy: a lack of empathy for others and a high degree of impulsivity
oNarcissism: feelings of grandiosity and superiority
oDistinct from the five-factor model
Traits Across Culture
oCultures geographically close appear to share the same personality traits
Shared gene pools
PSYCHOBIOLOGICAL APPROACHES
Heritability of Personality Traits
Studies show identical twins are more similar to each other than fraternal twins on
personality measures
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