PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes -Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders, Agoraphobia, Antisocial Personality Disorder

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Published on 19 Mar 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Chapter 17: The Natures and Causes of Mental Disorders
CLASSIFICATION OF DIAGNOSIS OF MENTAL DISORDERS
-Emil Kraepelin: created the first comprehensive classification system of psychological disorders
What is Abnormal?
-abnormal refers to any departure of the norm
-most important feature of a mental disorder is not whether a persons behavior is abnormal, but whether it
is maladaptive
Perspectives on the Causes of Mental Disorders
-mental disorders are caused by the interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors
The Psychodynamic Perspective
-Freud: mental disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the three components of the mind
the id, ego, and superego
-for some, the conflicts become so severe that the minds defense mechanisms cannot produce a resolution
that is enough for mental health
-the resultant is the defense mechanisms distort reality
-psychodynamic therapists attempt to make their clients aware of their intrapsychic conflict and defense
mechanism failures to regain mental health
The Medical Perspective
-Hippocrates: believed that excesses of the four humors (black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm) led to
emotional problems
-today many people with mental disorders are not longer treated in mental hospitals, instead they are
treated on an outpatient basis with drugs
-the medical model suggests that mental disorders are caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and
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nervous system and should be approached for treatment in the same manner as physical illnesses
The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective
-mental disorders are learned maladaptive behavior patterns that can be understood by focusing on
environmental factors and a persons perception of those factors
-example, a persons excessive use of alcohol may be reinforced by the relief from tension
-what also counts is a persons ongoing subject interpretation of the events taking place in his/her
environment
The Humanistic Perspective
-mental disorders arise when people perceive that they must earn the positive regard of others becoming
overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of others
-they begin to feel no control over the outcomes of the important events in life resulting in depression
-humanistic therapy help people realize that they do have intrinsic value
The Sociocultural Perspective
-cultures play a significant role in the development of mental disorders
-mental disorders exist that appear to occur only in certain cultures—a phenomenon called culture-bound
syndromes
The Diathesis-Stress Model of Mental Disorders
-a casual account of mental disorders based on the idea that mental disorders develop when a person
possess a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that exceed his or her abilities to cope with them
-the combination of a persons genetics and early learning experiences yield a predisposition for a mental
disorder
The DSM-IV Classification System
-the most commonly classification of mental disorders used in North America is Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV)
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-provides descriptions of an individuals psychological condition using five different criteria, called axes
-individuals undergoing evaluation are assessed on each of the axes
Axis I Axis II Axis III Axis IVAxis V
Basic classification Provide information about an individuals life
-major psychological
disorders that
require clinical
attention
-disorder may
characterize an
individual at any
one period of time
-personality
disorders
-disorder may
characterize an
individual at any
one period of time
-physical disorders
such as skin rashes
accompanying the
mental disorder
-specifies the
severity of stress
(within the last
year) and sources
details the source of
stress and its
severity and
approximate
duration
-estimate the extent
to which a persons
quality of life has
been diminished
due to the disorder
-ratings are made
on a 100-point
Global Assessment
of Functioning
(GAF) scale
-GAF=100 represents the absence or near absence of impaired functioning
-GAF=represents serious problems in functioning
-GAF=10 represents impairment that may result in injury
Some Problems with DSM-IV Classification
-diagnosis and treatment based on the DSM-IV emphasizes biological factors thus potential cognitive and
environmental determinants may be overlooked
-another problem is reliability
-diagnosing a psychological disorder only describes the symptoms of the disorder and does not explain the
cause and psychological processes
The Need for Classification
-Thomas Szasz: believed that all attempts to classify mental disorders should be abandoned because
labeling can have negative effects
-proper classification has advantages for the patient: recognition of a specific diagnostic category leads to
the development of successful treatment
-a patient may have multiple symptoms, but before the cause of the disorder can be discovered the primary
symptoms must be identified first
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Document Summary

Chapter 17: the natures and causes of mental disorders. Classif ication of d iagnosis of mental d isorders. Emil kraepelin: created the first comprehensive classification system of psychological disorders. Abnormal refers to any departure of the norm. Most important feature of a mental disorder is not whether a person"s behavior is abnormal, but whether it is maladaptive. Mental disorders are caused by the interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors. Freud: mental disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the three components of the mind the id, ego, and superego. For some, the conflicts become so severe that the mind"s defense mechanisms cannot produce a resolution that is enough for mental health. The resultant is the defense mechanisms distort reality. Psychodynamic therapists attempt to make their clients aware of their intrapsychic conflict and defense mechanism failures to regain mental health. H ippocrates: believed that excesses of the four humors (black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm) led to emotional problems.