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PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes -Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders, Agoraphobia, Antisocial Personality Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 17: The Natures and Causes of Mental Disorders
CLASSIFICATION OF DIAGNOSIS OF MENTAL DISORDERS
-Emil Kraepelin: created the first comprehensive classification system of psychological disorders
What is Abnormal?
-abnormal refers to any departure of the norm
-most important feature of a mental disorder is not whether a persons behavior is abnormal, but whether it
is maladaptive
Perspectives on the Causes of Mental Disorders
-mental disorders are caused by the interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors
The Psychodynamic Perspective
-Freud: mental disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the three components of the mind
the id, ego, and superego
-for some, the conflicts become so severe that the minds defense mechanisms cannot produce a resolution
that is enough for mental health
-the resultant is the defense mechanisms distort reality
-psychodynamic therapists attempt to make their clients aware of their intrapsychic conflict and defense
mechanism failures to regain mental health
The Medical Perspective
-Hippocrates: believed that excesses of the four humors (black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm) led to
emotional problems
-today many people with mental disorders are not longer treated in mental hospitals, instead they are
treated on an outpatient basis with drugs
-the medical model suggests that mental disorders are caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and
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nervous system and should be approached for treatment in the same manner as physical illnesses
The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective
-mental disorders are learned maladaptive behavior patterns that can be understood by focusing on
environmental factors and a persons perception of those factors
-example, a persons excessive use of alcohol may be reinforced by the relief from tension
-what also counts is a persons ongoing subject interpretation of the events taking place in his/her
environment
The Humanistic Perspective
-mental disorders arise when people perceive that they must earn the positive regard of others becoming
overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of others
-they begin to feel no control over the outcomes of the important events in life resulting in depression
-humanistic therapy help people realize that they do have intrinsic value
The Sociocultural Perspective
-cultures play a significant role in the development of mental disorders
-mental disorders exist that appear to occur only in certain cultures—a phenomenon called culture-bound
syndromes
The Diathesis-Stress Model of Mental Disorders
-a casual account of mental disorders based on the idea that mental disorders develop when a person
possess a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that exceed his or her abilities to cope with them
-the combination of a persons genetics and early learning experiences yield a predisposition for a mental
disorder
The DSM-IV Classification System
-the most commonly classification of mental disorders used in North America is Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV)
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-provides descriptions of an individuals psychological condition using five different criteria, called axes
-individuals undergoing evaluation are assessed on each of the axes
Axis I Axis II Axis III Axis IVAxis V
Basic classification Provide information about an individuals life
-major psychological
disorders that
require clinical
attention
-disorder may
characterize an
individual at any
one period of time
-personality
disorders
-disorder may
characterize an
individual at any
one period of time
-physical disorders
such as skin rashes
accompanying the
mental disorder
-specifies the
severity of stress
(within the last
year) and sources
details the source of
stress and its
severity and
approximate
duration
-estimate the extent
to which a persons
quality of life has
been diminished
due to the disorder
-ratings are made
on a 100-point
Global Assessment
of Functioning
(GAF) scale
-GAF=100 represents the absence or near absence of impaired functioning
-GAF=represents serious problems in functioning
-GAF=10 represents impairment that may result in injury
Some Problems with DSM-IV Classification
-diagnosis and treatment based on the DSM-IV emphasizes biological factors thus potential cognitive and
environmental determinants may be overlooked
-another problem is reliability
-diagnosing a psychological disorder only describes the symptoms of the disorder and does not explain the
cause and psychological processes
The Need for Classification
-Thomas Szasz: believed that all attempts to classify mental disorders should be abandoned because
labeling can have negative effects
-proper classification has advantages for the patient: recognition of a specific diagnostic category leads to
the development of successful treatment
-a patient may have multiple symptoms, but before the cause of the disorder can be discovered the primary
symptoms must be identified first
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