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Chapter 8

Chapter 8.pdf


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Chapter
8

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Chapter 8: Respondent Conditioning
Operant behaviours: controlled by consequences
Operant conditioning: manipulation of consequences
Respondent behaviours: controlled (elicited) by antecedent stimuli
Respondent conditioning: manipulation of antecedent stimuli
Defining Respondent Conditioning unconditioned responses/unconditioned stimuli
UR is a natural reflexive action of body that occurs when US is present
Respondent conditioning occurs when a previously neutral stimulus (NS) is paired with US as a
result, NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and elicits conditioned response (CR) similar to
the UR
UR or CR is called a respondent behaviour
Respondent conditioning is also called classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning
Pavlov dogs salivated when meat powder was placed in their mouths (US will elicit UR)
Then, presented NS (sound of metronome) just before he put meat powder in dog’s mouth a
number of times, then just the sound by itself. Dog still salivated to sound of metronome
(became a CS b/c it was paired a number of times with the meat)
Any stimulus can become CS if it’s paired a number of times with US
Timing of the Neutral Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus:
o Trace conditioning: NS precedes US, but NS ends before the US is presented (in eyeblink
example, present clicking sound and after clicking sound stopped, you present puff of air)
o Delay conditioning: NS is presented and then US is presented before NS ends (in
eyeblink conditioning, delay conditioning occurs if clicking sound presented and puff of
air is presented before clicking sound stopped)
o Stimulus conditioning: NS and US are presented at the same time. Clicking sound and
puff of air occur simultaneously
o Backward conditioning: the US is presented before the NS (puff of air directed at eye
and then clicking sound is presented. Unlikely that clicking sound will elicit eyeblink)
Trace and delay conditioning (NS is presented first) generally are most effective
Backward conditioning least effective
Higher order conditioning: when NS is paired with already established CS and the NS becomes a
CS.
Conditioned Emotional Responses (Watson and Rayner): used respondent conditioning
procedures to condition a fear response in a young child
CERs can be used to develop positive or negative responses
Respondent extinction: extinction of a CR, involves the repeated presentation of the CS without
presenting the US. If the CS continues to occur in absence of US, CR eventually decreases in
intensity and stops
Spontaneous recovery: when CS elicits the CR after extinction has taken place, magnitude of CR
usually smaller, and CR should disappear again if US is not presented with CS during
spontaneous recovery
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