Textbook Notes (378,338)
CA (167,126)
UTSC (19,207)
Psychology (9,979)
PSYA02H3 (978)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Oren Amitay

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Chapter 14 Personality
Personalitya particular pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and situations and
differentiates one person from another
1) identifying personality characteristics
2) determining the variables that produce and control them
(be careful to avoid the nominal fallacy - false belief that the causes of an event are explained by simply
naming and identifying them)
Trait Theories of Personality
Personality Types and Traits
Hippocrates (4th century B.C.E.) – refined by Galen (2nd century C.E.) – the theory was based on then
common medical beliefs that originated with the ancient Greeks
-people were classified according to the disposition supposedly produced by the predominance of
one of these humours in their systems
Body was thought to contain four humours, or fluids:
yellow bile – choleric people were bad tempered and irritable
black bile – melancholic people had gloomy and pessimistic temperaments
phlegm – phlegmatic people were sluggish, calm, and unexcitable
blood – sanguine people had a preponderance of blood (sanguis)
Personality typesdifferent categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on
factors such as developmental experiences or physical characteristics
e.g. tall people and short people
Personality traitan enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of
behaviour in a variety of situations
e.g. height (show tallness or shortness)
- fit common-sense view (some are lazy, friendly)
- Not simply patterns of behaviour
-once personality traits are developed, they reside in our brains
-if our personality traits are changed through learning, those changes must have a neurological basis
in the brain
Identification of Personality Traits
Allports Search for Traits
Gordon Allport – search systematically for a basic core of personality traits
-he believed that traits were neuropsychological properties that led to behavioural consistency over
www.notesolution.com
time and contexts by producing functional similarity in the way a given person interprets and
experiences events
Cardinal traits - characterize a strong unifying influence on a persons behaviour
- these traits were rare = people clearly stand out from the crowded
e.g. Nelson Mandelas commitment to justice, Adolf Hitlers relentless exercise of oppressive power,
Mother Teresas altruism
Central traits – less singular in their influence than cardinal traits, but capture important characteristics
of an individual
e.g. someone is honest and warm to distinguish him or her from others
Secondary traitsincludes characteristics that have minor influence on consistency of behaviour
e.g. a persons tendency to frequently change jobs
Cattell: Sixteen Personality Factors
Raymond Cattelused the process of a factor analysis to identify clusters of these traits that he
believed in turn represented underlying traits
-identified 16 personality factors source trait because they were the cornerstones upon which
personality is built
Eysenck: Three Factors
Hans Eysenckused factor analysis to devise a theory of personality
3 important factors: (are bipolar dimensions)
1) Extroversionan outgoing nature and a high level of activity i.e. socializing, are spontaneous, and
take risks
Introversion - shy, reserved, and careful; avoid the company of other people
2) Neuroticismfraught with worry and guilt, and are moody and unstable
Emotional stabilityeven-tempered; to be relaxed and at peace with oneself
3) Psychoticism – aggressive, egocentric, and anti-social nature
Def: anti-social tendencies and not to a mental illness
i.e. a person at the extreme end of the distribution of psychoticism would receive the diagnosis of anti-
social personality disorder
Self-controlkind and considerate nature, obedient of rules and laws
-The best way to understand the meaning of these traits is to read the questions and to imagine the
kinds of people who would answer yes or no to each group
-if a factor loading = a minus sign= say “no”
-the most important aspects of a persons temperament are determined by the combination of the 3
dimensions of extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism (hue, saturation, and brightness)
www.notesolution.com
-Eysenck believes that the functioning of a neural system located in the brain stem produces
different levels of arousal of the cerebral cortex
-Introversion-extroversion dimension is based on an optimum arousal level of the brain
-Introverts have relatively high levels of cortical excitation, while extroverts have relatively low
levels
-In order to maintain the optimum arousal level, the extrovert requires more external stimulation than
does the introvert
By interacting with others or by pursuing novel and highly stimulating experiences
Introvert avoids external stimulation
Different states of arousal are hypothesized to lead to different values of the extroversion trait
for different people
The 3 factors have emerged in factor analyses performed by many different researchers
The Five-Factor Model
Tupes and Christal – Five factor modela theory stating that personality is composed of 5 primary
dimensions: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. This theory was
developed using factor analyses of ratings of the words people use to describe personality characteristics
Factor: Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) – the
instrument used to measure the elements described in the 5-factor model (neuroticism, extroversion,
openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness)
-R stands for revised
-Neuroticism and extroversion have considerable cross-cultural applicability
DeNeve and Coopershowed that 5 factors can be used to predict subjective well-being
Vollrathfound moderate predictability for responses to “daily hassles experienced by college
students
Barrick, Mount, and Judge - reported a meta-analysis of studies measuring job performance relative to
the five personality dimensions
e.g. extroversion seems to predict success in jobs that require leadership or in jobs that demand the
ability to improvise in order to reach goals
-correlations in traits are higher within monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins
-the data suggest that environmental factors pale beside genetic influences
Jacksonargues that a 5-factor model may be more appropriate
-the conscientiousness factor in the traditional 5-factor model actually represents two distinct
dimensions
1) methodicalness, reflects planfulness and a need for orderliness
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 14 Personality Personality a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another 1) identifying personality characteristics 2) determining the variables that produce and control them (be careful to avoid the nominal fallacy - false belief that the causes of an event are explained by simply naming and identifying them) Trait Theories of Personality Personality Types and Traits Hippocrates (4th century B.C.E.) refined by Galen (2 century C.E.) the theory was based on then common medical beliefs that originated with the ancient Greeks - people were classified according to the disposition supposedly produced by the predominance of one of these humours in their systems Body was thought to contain four humours, or fluids: yellow bile choleric people were bad tempered and irritable black bile melancholic people had gloomy and pessimistic temperaments phlegm phlegmatic people were sluggish, calm, and unexcitable blood sanguine people had a preponderance of blood (sanguis) Personality types different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences or physical characteristics e.g. tall people and short people Personality trait an enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations e.g. height (show tallness or shortness) - fit common-sense view (some are lazy, friendly) - Not simply patterns of behaviour - once personality traits are developed, they reside in our brains - if our personality traits are changed through learning, those changes must have a neurological basis in the brain Identification of Personality Traits Allports Search for Traits Gordon Allport search systematically for a basic core of personality traits - he believed that traits were neuropsychological properties that led to behavioural consistency over www.notesolution.com time and contexts by producing functional similarity in the way a given person interprets and experiences events Cardinal traits - characterize a strong unifying influence on a persons behaviour - these traits were rare = people clearly stand out from the crowded e.g. Nelson Mandelas commitment to justice, Adolf Hitlers relentless exercise of oppressive power, Mother Teresas altruism Central traits less singular in their influence than cardinal traits, but capture important characteristics of an individual e.g. someone is honest and warm to distinguish him or her from others Secondary traits includes characteristics that have minor influence on consistency of behaviour e.g. a persons tendency to frequently change jobs Cattell: Sixteen Personality Factors Raymond Cattel used the process of a factor analysis to identify clusters of these traits that he believed in turn represented underlying traits - identified 16 personality factors source trait because they were the cornerstones upon which personality is built Eysenck: Three Factors Hans Eysenck used factor analysis to devise a theory of personality 3 important factors: (are bipolar dimensions) 1) Extroversion an outgoing nature and a high level of activity i.e. socializing, are spontaneous, and take risks Introversion - shy, reserved, and careful; avoid the company of other people 2) Neuroticism fraught with worry and guilt, and are moody and unstable Emotional stability even-tempered; to be relaxed and at peace with oneself 3) Psychoticism aggressive, egocentric, and anti-social nature Def: anti-social tendencies and not to a mental illness i.e. a person at the extreme end of the distribution of psychoticism would receive the diagnosis of anti- social personality disorder Self-control kind and considerate nature, obedient of rules and laws - The best way to understand the meaning of these traits is to read the questions and to imagine the kinds of people who would answer yes or no to each group - if a factor loading = a minus sign= say no - the most important aspects of a persons temperament are determined by the combination of the 3 dimensions of extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism (hue, saturation, and brightness) www.notesolution.com - Eysenck believes that the functioning of a neural system located in the brain stem produces different levels of arousal of the cerebral cortex - Introversion-extroversion dimension is based on an optimum arousal level of the brain - Introverts have relatively high levels of cortical excitation, while extroverts have relatively low levels - In order to maintain the optimum arousal level, the extrovert requires more external stimulation than does the introvert By interacting with others or by pursuing novel and highly stimulating experiences Introvert avoids external stimulation Different states of arousal are hypothesized to lead to different values of the extroversion trait for different people The 3 factors have emerged in factor analyses performed by many different researchers The Five-Factor Model Tupes and Christal Five factor model a theory stating that personality is composed of 5 primary dimensions: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. This theory was developed using factor analyses of ratings of the words people use to describe personality characteristics Factor: Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) the instrument used to measure the elements described in the 5-factor model (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) - R stands for revised - Neuroticism and extroversion have considerable cross-cultural applicability DeNeve and Cooper showed that 5 factors can be used to predict subjective well-being Vollrath found moderate predictability for responses to daily hassles experienced by college students Barrick, Mount, and Judge - reported a meta-analysis of studies measuring job performance relative to the five personality dimensions e.g. extroversion seems to predict success in jobs that require leadership or in jobs that demand the ability to improvise in order to reach goals - correlations in traits are higher within monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins - the data suggest that environmental factors pale beside genetic influences Jackson argues that a 5-factor model may be more appropriate - the conscientiousness factor in the traditional 5-factor model actually represents two distinct dimensions 1) methodicalness, reflects planfulness and a need for orderliness www.notesolution.com 2) industriousness is characterized by perseverance and achievement orientation The Dark Triad - a special cluster of traits may underlie socially offensive personalities Machiavellianism a trait characterized by skill at manipulating others socially Psychopathy a trait describing a lack of empathy for others and a high degree of impulsivity Narcissism (Paulhus and Williams) a trait characterized by grandiosity and feelings of superiority - formed a Dark Triad of overlapping negative traits Dark Triad - is considered distinct from the five factors, although there are low to moderate correlations between them Vernon, Villani, Vickers, and Harris find considerable genetic influence on these traits Dark Triad personality (criminal personality type)- seems to epitomize the notion of a cold, calculating, domineering, and remorseless criminal - its probably a mistake to label these traits as intrinsically maladaptive - traits are collective descriptions for certain behaviours, and behaviours are adaptive or not depending on the context - the increasing social isolation of the modern would may reward many of the milder aspects of the Dark Traiad Traits across Cultures - if personality comprises a standard set of factors, then these factors should be reported cross- culturally - the set of factors are not cross-culturally = the theory is culture-specific - problems in demonstrating universality lie in taxonomy e.g. do the same words mean the same things across cultures? Boele de Raad suggests that the best one can do is to find acceptable counterparts of the five factors in all cultures; the 3 factors of the model (neuroticism, extroversion, and openness) can be found in most cultures, but the cross-cultural validity of the others may be questionable McCrae and Terracciano identify a man or woman they knew well and rate him or her using the third-person version of the NEO-PI-R - the 5-factor model was replicated in almost all cultures - women were more positive than men in rating others, especially when rating other women Allik and McCrae examined whether respondents from 36 cultures differed according to the 5-factor model www.notesolution.com
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