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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Notes

Course Code
Oren Amitay

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Chapter 11 Intelligence and Thinking
Intelligencet refer to a persons ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and
their relations, and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way
Differential approachan approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests that
identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problems
e.g. explain proverbs, solve arithmetic problems, discover similarities in shapes
Developmental approachan approach to the study of intelligence based on the way children learn to
perceive, manipulate, and think about the world
Information processing approachan approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the types
of skills people use to think and to solve problems
Theories of Intelligence
-IQ is not a single, general characteristic
Intellectual abilities are completely independent of one another
E.g. excellent at spatial reasoning but poor at solving verbal analogies
Not totally independent; not one general factor influences all abilities
-AQ, athletic quotient, add numbers up, yielding a total score
Consists of a variety of skills, and different sports require different combinations of skills
Spearmans Two-Factor Theory
Charles Spearmanproposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined
by two factors:
G factora factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks
Threequalitative principles of cognition”:1) apprehension of experience 2)eduction of relations 3)
eduction(process of drawing or bringing out) of correlates
- solving analogies requires all three principles
e.g. Lawyer:Client::Doctor:______
1) peoples ability to perceive and understand what they experience
reading and understanding each of the words
2) the ability to perceive the relation between Lawyer and Client
namely, that the lawyer works for the client
3) the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar case
doctor works for Patient
S factora factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task
About the correlations test:
-the general fact (g) accounted for the moderate correlations among different tests of ability

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-a persons score on a particular test depends on two things: the persons specific ability (s) on the
particular test (such as spatial reasoning) and his or her level of the g factor, or general reasoning
Evidence from Factor Analysis
Karl Pearson and Spearman - Factor analysisa statistical procedure that identifies common factors
among groups of tests
-provides clues about the nature of intelligence, but it cannot provide a theory of intelligence
Louis Thurstoneextracted 7 factors: verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number, spatial
visualization, memory, reasoning, perceptual speed
-his results contradicted Spearmans hypothesized g factor
Eysencksuggested a few years later that a second factor analysis could be performed on Thurstones
-if the analysis found one common factor among the factors, then Spearmans g factor would receive
-if Thurstones seven factors themselves had a second-order factor in common, this factor might be
conceived of as general intelligence
Cattellperformed a second-order factor analysis and found two major factors:
fluid intelligence (gf)relatively culture-free tasks; measure the ability to see relations among objects
or the ability to see patterns in a repeating series of items
-closely related to a persons native capacity for intellectual performance
-represents a potential ability to learn and solve problems
-i.e. experience with language and exposure to books, school, and other learning opportunities
develop crystallized intelligence
crystallized intelligence (gc) – tasks that require people to have acquired information from their culture,
such as vocabulary and the kind of information learned in schools
-what a person has accomplished through the use of his or her fluid intelligence
-what he or she has learned
-i.e. word analogies and vocabulary, general information, and use of language tests load heavily on
the crystallized intelligence factor
- gc depends on gf
Hornsuggesting that both factors are learned but are also based to a degree on heredity
-gf is based on casual learning and gc is based on cultural, school-type learning
An Information Processing Theory of Intelligence

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Robert Sternberg – success in life is strongly affected by the extent to which they effectively analyze
and manage their unique combinations of strengths and weaknesses
-triarchic (“ruled by three”) theory of intelligence
Successful intelligencethe ability to effectively
1) analyze ones strengths and weaknesses
2) use the strengths to greatest advantage
3) minimize the impact of weaknesses by overcoming or compensating for them
Analytic intelligencethe mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks; includes
metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge acquisition components
-analyses of verbal ability and deductive reasoning that we just described are facets of analytic
metacomponentsthe processes by which people decide the nature of an intellectual problem, select a
strategy for solving it, and allocate their resources
e.g. good readers vary the amount of time they spend on a passage according to how much information
they need to extract from it
performance componentsprocesses used to perform the task
e.g. word recognition and working memory
knowledge acquisition componentsperson uses to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant
information and integrating it with what he or she already knows
Creative intelligencethe ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve familiar problems
automatically that have been encountered previously
-high score in it – able to deal more effectively with novel situations than is a person with low
creative intelligence
-is better able to analyze the situation and to bring mental resources to bear on the problem, even if
he or she has never encountered one like it before, then freeing mental resources for more
demanding work
-closely related to fluid(novel approaches) and crystallized intelligence(mental processes that have
become automatic)
Sternberg and Lubartcreative people are willing to tolerate criticism and at least initial rejection of
their new ideas
Practical intelligenceintelligence that reflects the behaviours that were subject to natural selection:
Adaptation - fitting oneself into ones environment by developing useful skills and behavious
e.g. knowing how to distinguish between poisonous, edible, and medicinal plants is an important skill for
members of the Malaysian Sarawak hunter-gatherer tribe
- socio-cultural and physical context have a strong impact on it
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