Chapter 11

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8 Apr 2011
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Psychology Chapter 12 Intelligence and Thinking
Theories of Intelligence
Spearmans two factor theory
-proposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by 2
1) G Factor – general factor
-has 2 qualitative principles of cognition
-apprehension of experience, eduction of relations, eduction of correlates
-good tests use all 3
2) S factor – specific to a particular test
Evidence from Factor Analysis
-developed by Person and Spearman
Factor Analysis - statistical procedure that identifies common factors amongst groups of
tests (groups them together)
-provides clues as to the nature of intelligence, but no theory on intelligence
An Information processing theory of Intelligence – will have to identify an example of
the intelligences’ for the exam
-developed by Sterberg
-degree of success in is affected by the extent to which they manage their strengths and
It is a Tri-archic Theory of Intelligence
-deals with analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence
Successful Intelligence - the ability to….
a)Analyze ones strengths and weaknesses
b) Use strengths to the greatest advantage
c)Minimize impact of weakness by overcoming or compensating
Composed of…
Analytical Intelligence - mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks,
which components serve 3 purposes/functions
a)Metacomponents – process by which people decide the nature of an intellectual
problem, select a strategy for solving it, and allocate thehir resources, this decision
is controlled by a metacomponent of intelligence (Time management for reading)
b) Performance components – process used to perform the task (Knowing how to
c)Knowledge acquisition components – used to gain new knowledge, sift out
relevant info and integrate it with what you know
Creative Intelligence - ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve
familiar problems automatically (Novel tasks, and automated tasks)
Practical Intelligence - intelligence reflecting the behaviours that were subject to natural
selection in our evolution theory, it takes 3 forms
a)Adaptation : consists of fitting onself into ones environment by developing useful
skills and behaviours (adapting to environment)
b) Selection: ability to find ones niche in the environment (finding a suitable
c)Shaping : changing the environment (starting ones own business because you hate
your workplace)
Gardeners Theory will test on first 3 or 4 and/or the limitations of them
-multiple intelligences, are situated within cultures
-may or may not be activated in the individual
-8 intellgiences (potential 9th, existential intelligence)
-limitations are that some mix, they also heavily differ from culture (logic for example)
a) Logical Mathematical Intelligence : ability to reason logically and to process
mathematical equations (conduct systematic investigations)
b) Verbal-linguistic Intelligence: Ability to use language, sensitivity to meanings and
sounds of works (Learn new languages easily, write, and speak clearly)
c) Visual-spatial intelligence: ability to understand patterns in closed or open spaces
(Organize objects and activities in 3d space)
d) Naturalist intelligence: ability to understand patterns in nature (identify and
categorize plants and animals, notice regularities of weather conditions)
e) Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: ability to control the body precise (Use of the body to
solve problems, athletes)
f) Musical intelligence : ability to understand and create musical patterns (Composition
and performance of music)
g) Intrapersonal intelligence: ability to understand the self, including ones skills,
emotions, thoughts, and intentions (Personal integrity, strength of character)
h) Interpersonal intelligence: ability to recognize differences among people, to
understand their emotions, intentions, and motivations (leadership and interpersonal
problem solving)
Emotional intelligence
-virtually all EQ tests test through self-rapport
MSCEIT – has FACE VALIDITY (does what it says)
-only ability test also
Intelligence Testing
From Mandarins to Galton
-Galton determined that intelligence was heritable
-established the Anthropometric Laboratory to test intelligence of people based on 17
-developed the logic of twin studies and adaptive parent studies to asses the heritability of
a human trait