Textbook Notes (378,371)
CA (167,127)
UTSC (19,207)
Psychology (9,979)
PSYA02H3 (978)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Textbook

18 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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CHAPTER 10: LANGUAGE
Languages flexible systems that use symbols to express many meaning.
One conclusion that has emerged from the studies of primates is that true
verbal ability is a social behaviour.
Language plays a crucial role in our day-to-day communication, by we also
use language as a tool in our remembering and thinking. It also enables us to
think about very complex and abstract issues by encoding them as words and
then manipulating the words according to logical rules.
Linguists have studied the rules of language and have described precisely
what we do when we speak or write.
In contrast, researchers in psycholinguistics, a branch of psychology
devoted to the study of verbal behaviour, are more concerned with human
cognition than with the particular rules that describe language. Psycholinguists
are interested in how children acquire language and study how adults use
language and how verbal abilities interact with other cognitive abilities.
Speech and Comprehension
Perception of Speech:
Speech does not come to us as a series of individual words; we must extract
the words from a stream of speech.
Recognition of Speech Sounds:
The auditory system performs a formidably complex task in enabling us to
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recognize speech sounds.
Like our ability to recognize faces visually, the auditory system recognizes the
patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves.
Using fMRI scans, Belin, Zatorre, and Ahad found that some regions of the
brain responded more when people heard human vocalization (both speech and
non-speech) than when they heard only natural sounds. Regions in which there
was a large difference were located in the temporal lobe, on the auditory cortex.
When it comes to analyzing the detailed information for speech, the left
hemisphere plays a larger role.
The analysis of speech usually begins with it elements, or phonemes.
Phonemes are the elements of speech the smallest units of sound that
allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word.
Voice-onset time the delay between the initial sound of a consonant and
the onset of vibration of the vocal cords.
Voicing is the vibration of your vocal cords. The distinction between voiced
and unvoiced consonants permits us to distinguish between /p/ and /b/,
between /k/ and /g/, and between /t/ and /d/.
Phonemic discrimination begin with auditory processing of the sensory
differences, and this occurs in both hemispheres. However, regions of the left
auditory cortex seem to specialize in recognizing the special aspects of speech.
Ganong found that the perception of a phoneme is affected by the sounds that
follow it. We recognize speech sounds in pieces larger than individual phonemes.
Phonemes are combined to form morphemes, which are the smallest units of
meaning in language.
The syntax of a particular language determines how phonemes can be
combined to form morphemes. Ex: the word fastest contains 2 morphemes, /fast/,
which is a free morpheme, because it can stand on its own and still have
meaning, and /ist/, which is a bound morpheme. Bound morphemes cannot
stand on their own and must be attached to other morphemes to provide
meaning.
www.notesolution.com
Recognition of Words in Continuous Speech: The Importance of Learning and
Context:
A special electrical signal called the N100 wave, appears shortly after people
hear the onset of a word. Sanders and her co-workers found that when people
learned these nonsense sounds as words (dutaba), they showed the N100
response despite the fact that there we no additional auditory cues to segment
the string of sounds.
In addition to learning the units of speech, we also learn its content. Even
though speech is filled with hesitations, muffled sounds, and sloppy
pronunciations, we are able to recognize the sounds because of the context. Also
we take advantage of context when reading as we do when speaking.
Understanding the Meaning of Speech:
Syntax:
All languages have a syntax, or grammar. Syntax, like synthesis, comes from
the Greek syntassein, to put together.
They all follow certain principles, which linguists call syntactical rules, a
grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases,
clauses, and sentences.
Our understanding of syntax is automatic, we are no more conscious of this
process than a child is conscious of the laws of physics when he or she learns to
ride a bicycle.
fMRI studies have shown that as syntax becomes more complex or
ambiguous, our brains become more active.
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Description
CHAPTER 10: LANGUAGE Languages flexible systems that use symbols to express many meaning. One conclusion that has emerged from the studies of primates is that true verbal ability is a social behaviour. Language plays a crucial role in our day-to-day communication, by we also use language as a tool in our remembering and thinking. It also enables us to think about very complex and abstract issues by encoding them as words and then manipulating the words according to logical rules. Linguists have studied the rules of language and have described precisely what we do when we speak or write. In contrast, researchers in psycholinguistics, a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour, are more concerned with human cognition than with the particular rules that describe language. Psycholinguists are interested in how children acquire language and study how adults use language and how verbal abilities interact with other cognitive abilities. Speech and Comprehension Perception of Speech: Speech does not come to us as a series of individual words; we must extract the words from a stream of speech. Recognition of Speech Sounds: The auditory system performs a formidably complex task in enabling us to www.notesolution.comrecognize speech sounds. Like our ability to recognize faces visually, the auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves. Using fMRI scans, Belin, Zatorre, and Ahad found that some regions of the brain responded more when people heard human vocalization (both speech and non-speech) than when they heard only natural sounds. Regions in which there was a large difference were located in the temporal lobe, on the auditory cortex. When it comes to analyzing the detailed information for speech, the left hemisphere plays a larger role. The analysis of speech usually begins with it elements, or phonemes. Phonemes are the elements of speech the smallest units of sound that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word. Voice-onset time the delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords. Voicing is the vibration of your vocal cords. The distinction between voiced and unvoiced consonants permits us to distinguish between p and b, between k and g, and between t and d. Phonemic discrimination begin with auditory processing of the sensory differences, and this occurs in both hemispheres. However, regions of the left auditory cortex seem to specialize in recognizing the special aspects of speech. Ganong found that the perception of a phoneme is affected by the sounds that follow it. We recognize speech sounds in pieces larger than individual phonemes. Phonemes are combined to form morphemes, which are the smallest units of meaning in language. The syntax of a particular language determines how phonemes can be combined to form morphemes. Ex: the word fastest contains 2 morphemes, fast, which is a free morpheme, because it can stand on its own and still have meaning, and ist, which is a bound morpheme. Bound morphemes cannot stand on their own and must be attached to other morphemes to provide meaning. www.notesolution.com
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