Textbook Notes (378,627)
CA (167,198)
UTSC (19,212)
Psychology (9,983)
PSYA02H3 (979)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14: Personality (from Locus of Control to end)

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 14: Social Cognitive Approaches
Locus of Control
Refers to whether one believes that that the consequences of ones actions are
controlled by internal (control of fate), person variables or by external,
environmental variables
Rotter developed the I-E Scaleassesses the degree to which people perceive the
consequences of their behaviour to be under the control of internal or external
variables
oContains 29 pairs of statements to which a person indicated his or her degree
of agreement
oScored by counting the number of choices consistent with either the internal
or the external locus of control orientation
oResults have shown that people who have internal locus control orientation
will work harder to obtain a goal in comparison to those who have external
locus control
Internal orientations also achieve stronger academic grades, yet blame
themselves during failure
oPeople who have internal orientations are more likely to be aware of and to
engage in good health practices
Positive Psychology
Martin Seligman suggested that psychology should concern itself with the beneficial
aspects of personality that make life rewarding and fulfilling
Positive psychology is a psychological program that examines optimal human
functioning
Used to study origins, processes, and mechanisms that lead to psychological well-
being, satisfaction, and fulfillment
Ex: forgiveness is a factor in the quality of marriage
The social role for women place a strong emphasis on social skillspositive
psychology would seek to understand the interplay between personality variables
that promotes a valued relationship
www.notesolution.com
The Psychodynamic Approach
Freud was the first to claim that what we do is often irrational and that the reasons
for our behaviour are seldom conscious
Psychodynamicthe Freudian notion that the mind is in a state of conflict among
instincts, reason, and conscience
The Development of Freuds Theory
Freud concluded that all human behaviour is motivated by instinctual drives
(triggered by events in a persons life), which, when activated, supply psychic
energy. This energy is aversive because the nervous system seeks a state of quiet
equilibrium
oIf something prevents the psychic energy caused by activation of a drive from
being discharged, psychological disturbances will result
There is a cost to hiding emotional reactions and supressing the psychic energy that
fuels them: the emotion may be expressed neurotically (excessive anxiety)
Unconscious: the inaccessible part of the mind
oUnconscious emotions still exert control over conscious thoughts and actions
Freud believed that the mind actively prevents unconscious memories of traumatic
events from reaching conscious awareness (repressing memories)
Our personalities are determined by both conscious and unconscious powers
Structures of the Mind: Id, Ego and Superego
the mind consists of unconsciousness mental events of which we are not aware
Consciousness mental events that we are aware of
Pre-consciousness mental events that may become conscious
through effort
Freud divided the mind into three structures: the id, the ego, and the superego
IDEGO SUPEREGO
Operations are completely
unconscious
Contains the libido 
Thinking, planning, and
protective self; it controls
and integrates behaviour
Subdivided into
conscience and ego-
ideal
www.notesolution.com
primary source of
instinctual motivation for
all psychic forces
Obeys one
ruleobtain immediate
gratification in whatever
form it may takecalled
the pleasure principle
Functions of perception,
cognition, and memory
Driven by the reality
principlethe tendency
to satisfy the ids
demands realistically
Consciencethe
internalization of the
rules and restrictions of
society
Ego-
idealinternalization of
what society values and
what the person will
strive to achieve
Freud believed the mind to be full of conflicts
oInternalized prohibitionsrules of behaviour learned in childhood that
protect the person for the guilt he or she would feel if the instinctual drives
were allowed to express themselves
Freud believed memories could be rediscovered.
oThe manifest content of a dreamits actual storylineis only a disguised
version of its latent contentits hidden message which is produced by the
unconscious
Free association is a method of analysis in which an individual is asked to relax,
clear his or her mind of what he or she is currently thinking, and then report all
thoughts, images, perceptions, and feelings that come to mind
oFreud looked at patterns in patients report that might reveal wishes, fears,
and worries that the patients mind might be keeping hidden
Defense mechanisms
Defence mechanismsmental systems that become active whenever the ids
unconscious instinctual drives come into conflict with the superegos internalized
prohibitions
oRepressionresponsible for keeping threatening or anxiety-provoking
memories from our conscious awareness
oReaction formationinvolves replacing an anxiety-provoking idea with its
opposite
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 14: Social Cognitive Approaches Locus of Control Refers to whether one believes that that the consequences of ones actions are controlled by internal (control of fate), person variables or by external, environmental variables Rotter developed the I-E Scaleassesses the degree to which people perceive the consequences of their behaviour to be under the control of internal or external variables o Contains 29 pairs of statements to which a person indicated his or her degree of agreement o Scored by counting the number of choices consistent with either the internal or the external locus of control orientation o Results have shown that people who have internal locus control orientation will work harder to obtain a goal in comparison to those who have external locus control Internal orientations also achieve stronger academic grades, yet blame themselves during failure o People who have internal orientations are more likely to be aware of and to engage in good health practices Positive Psychology Martin Seligman suggested that psychology should concern itself with the beneficial aspects of personality that make life rewarding and fulfilling Positive psychology is a psychological program that examines optimal human functioning Used to study origins, processes, and mechanisms that lead to psychological well- being, satisfaction, and fulfillment Ex: forgiveness is a factor in the quality of marriage The social role for women place a strong emphasis on social spilsitive psychology would seek to understand the interplay between personality variables that promotes a valued relationship www.notesolution.com
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