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CA (168,383)
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Psychology (10,052)
PSYA02H3 (984)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 study notes

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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CHAPTER 14: PERSONALITY
PERSONALITY: particular pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across
time and situations and differentiates one person from another.
Psychologists study personality to discover the causes of individual differences in
behaviour.
People used to be divided into different personality types: different categories into
which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental
experiences.
People prefer to measure the degree to which an individual expresses a particular
personality trait.
Personality trait: personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern
of behaviour in different situations.
Gordon Allport : first psychologist to search systematically for a basic core of
personality traits.
He found approx.18 000 characteristics.
Not all traits have equal influence on each other.
Cardinal traits have strong unifying influence on persons behaviour. These traits are
rare, and these people stand out.
Central Traits are less singular in their influence than cardinal traits; capture
important characteristics of individuals.
Secondary traits include characteristics that have minor influence on consistency of
behaviour.
Raymond Cattell : identified 16 personality factors.
Hans Eysenck : used factor analysis to devise a theory of personality.
Important factors: extroversion and introversion
Extroversion: outgoing nature and a high level of activity.
Introversion: refers to shy, reserved, and careful.
People with neuroticism are fraught with worry and guilt, moody and unstable.
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Those who score low on neuroticism have emotional stability (tendency to be
relaxed and at peace with oneself).
Psychoticism: refers to aggressive, egocentric, and anti-social nature.
Self-control: refers to a kind and considerate nature, obedient of rules and laws.
Introverts have high levels of cortical excitation, while extroverts have relatively low
levels.
According to Eysenck, the two dimensions of neuroticism (stable versus unstable) and
introversion-extroversion combine to form a variety of personality characteristics.
Five Factor Model: a theory stating that personality is composed of five primary
dimensions: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
This theory was developed using factor analyses of ratings of the words people use to
describe personality characteristics.
These factors are measured by the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness
Personality Inventory (NEO-P-R)
NEO-P-R consists of 240 items that can potentially be used to describe the person
being evaluated.
Extroversion predicts success in jobs that require leadership.
Conscientiousness predicts success across job classifications.
Socially offensive personalities: manipulation has been called Machiavellianism
after a Italian political theorist.
Psychopathy: lack of empathy for others and a high degree of impulsivity.
These two traits together are called narcissim: which leads to grandiosity and
feelings of superiorty, formed a Dark Traid of overlapping negative traits.
Males tend to score higher on the Dark Traid traits.
Personality triats are factors that underlie patterns of behaviour. These factors are
biological in nature, although they may be the products of learning as well as heredity.
Studies of similarities in traits across different cultures have found that the first
three traits of the five-factor model can be found in most cultures.
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Description
CHAPTER 14: PERSONALITY PERSONALITY: particular pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another. Psychologists study personality to discover the causes of individual differences in behaviour. People used to be divided into different personality types: different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences. People prefer to measure the degree to which an individual expresses a particular personality trait. Personality trait: personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behaviour in different situations. Gordon Allport: first psychologist to search systematically for a basic core of personality traits. He found approx.18 000 characteristics. Not all traits have equal influence on each other. Cardinal traits have strong unifying influence on persons behaviour. These traits are rare, and these people stand out. Central Traits are less singular in their influence than cardinal traits; capture important characteristics of individuals. Secondary traits include characteristics that have minor influence on consistency of behaviour. Raymond Cattell : identified 16 personality factors. Hans Eysenck : used factor analysis to devise a theory of personality. Important factors: extroversion and introversion Extroversion: outgoing nature and a high level of activity. Introversion: refers to shy, reserved, and careful. People with neuroticism are fraught with worry and guilt, moody and unstable. 1 www.notesolution.com
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