Those who score low on neuroticism have emotional stability (tendency to be
relaxed and at peace with oneself).
Psychoticism: refers to aggressive, egocentric, and anti-social nature.
Self-control: refers to a kind and considerate nature, obedient of rules and laws.
Introverts have high levels of cortical excitation, while extroverts have relatively low
According to Eysenck, the two dimensions of neuroticism (stable versus unstable) and
introversion-extroversion combine to form a variety of personality characteristics.
Five Factor Model: a theory stating that personality is composed of five primary
dimensions: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
This theory was developed using factor analyses of ratings of the words people use to
describe personality characteristics.
These factors are measured by the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness
Personality Inventory (NEO-P-R)
NEO-P-R consists of 240 items that can potentially be used to describe the person
Extroversion predicts success in jobs that require leadership.
Conscientiousness predicts success across job classifications.
Socially offensive personalities: manipulation has been called Machiavellianism
after a Italian political theorist.
Psychopathy: lack of empathy for others and a high degree of impulsivity.
These two traits together are called narcissim: which leads to grandiosity and
feelings of superiorty, formed a “Dark Traid” of overlapping negative traits.
Males tend to score higher on the Dark Traid traits.
Personality triats are factors that underlie patterns of behaviour. These factors are
biological in nature, although they may be the products of learning as well as heredity.
Studies of similarities in traits across different cultures have found that the first
three traits of the five-factor model can be found in most cultures.