Textbook Notes (381,082)
CA (168,341)
UTSC (19,304)
Psychology (10,047)
PSYA02H3 (984)
Fornier (13)
Chapter

Ch 13

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Fornier

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CHAPTER 13 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
Motivation – a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, or persistence of an
individual’s behaviour
-Pleasant/unpleasant approach or avoidance (appetitive vs. aversive)
-Physiological, behavioural, cognitive, social
Biological Needs
Regulatory behaviour – a behaviour that tens to bring physiological conditions back to normal, thus
restoring the condition of homeostasis
Homeostasis – the process by which important physiological characteristics (body temp and blood pressure)
are regulated so that they remain at their optimum level (internal regulation)
System variable – the variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism
Set point – the optimum value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism
Detector – in a regulatory process, a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its set
point
Correctional mechanism – in a regulatory process, the mechanism that is capable of restoring the system
variable to the set point
Negative feedback – a process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate
that action. Regulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loops
Drive reduction hypothesis – the hypothesis that a drive (resulting form physiological need or deprivation)
reduces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours. Reduction of drive
is assumed to be reinforcing
Drive – a condition, often cased by physiological changes in homeostatic disequilibrium that energizes an
organism’s behaviour
Physiology of Reinforcement
Optimum-Level Theory
Optimum-level hypothesis – the hypothesis that organisms will perform behaviour that restores the level of
arousal to an optimum level
Diversive exploration – response to understimulation (boredom) that increases the diversity o the stimuli
the organism tries to come in contact with
Specific exploration – a response to the overstimulation (usually because of a specific need) that leads to
the needed item, thereby decreasing the organism’s drive level
Perseverance
Perseverance – the tendency to continue to perform a behaviour even when it is not being reinforced
Overjustification hypothesis – the superfluous application of extrinsic rewards to intrinsically motivated
behaviour will undermine intrinsic motivation
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Description
CHAPTER 13 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION WHAT IS MOTIVATION? Motivation a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, or persistence of an individuals behaviour - Pleasantunpleasant approach or avoidance (appetitive vs. aversive) - Physiological, behavioural, cognitive, social Biological Needs Regulatory behaviour a behaviour that tens to bring physiological conditions back to normal, thus restoring the condition of homeostasis Homeostasis the process by which important physiological characteristics (body temp and blood pressure) are regulated so that they remain at their optimum level (internal regulation) System variable the variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism Set point the optimum value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism Detector in a regulatory process, a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its set point Correctional mechanism in a regulatory process, the mechanism that is capable of restoring the system variable to the set point Negative feedback a process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action. Regulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loops Drive reduction hypothesis the hypothesis that a drive (resulting form physiological need or deprivation) reduces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours. Reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcing Drive a condition, often cased by physiological changes in homeostatic disequilibrium that energizes an organisms behaviour Physiology of Reinforcement Optimum-Level Theory Optimum-level hypothesis the hypothesis that organisms will perform behaviour that restores the level of arousal to an optimum level Diversive exploration response to understimulation (boredom) that increases the diversity o the stimuli the organism tries to come in contact with Specific exploration a response to the overstimulation (usually because of a specific need) that leads to the needed item, thereby decreasing the organisms drive level Perseverance Perseverance the tendency to continue to perform a behaviour even when it is not being reinforced Overjustification hypothesis the superfluous application of extrinsic rewards to intrinsically motivated behaviour will undermine intrinsic motivation www.notesolution.com
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