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Chapter

Ch 13


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Fornier

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CHAPTER 13 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
Motivation – a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, or persistence of an
individual’s behaviour
-Pleasant/unpleasant approach or avoidance (appetitive vs. aversive)
-Physiological, behavioural, cognitive, social
Biological Needs
Regulatory behaviour – a behaviour that tens to bring physiological conditions back to normal, thus
restoring the condition of homeostasis
Homeostasis – the process by which important physiological characteristics (body temp and blood pressure)
are regulated so that they remain at their optimum level (internal regulation)
System variable – the variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism
Set point – the optimum value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism
Detector – in a regulatory process, a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its set
point
Correctional mechanism – in a regulatory process, the mechanism that is capable of restoring the system
variable to the set point
Negative feedback – a process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate
that action. Regulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loops
Drive reduction hypothesis – the hypothesis that a drive (resulting form physiological need or deprivation)
reduces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours. Reduction of drive
is assumed to be reinforcing
Drive – a condition, often cased by physiological changes in homeostatic disequilibrium that energizes an
organism’s behaviour
Physiology of Reinforcement
Optimum-Level Theory
Optimum-level hypothesis – the hypothesis that organisms will perform behaviour that restores the level of
arousal to an optimum level
Diversive exploration – response to understimulation (boredom) that increases the diversity o the stimuli
the organism tries to come in contact with
Specific exploration – a response to the overstimulation (usually because of a specific need) that leads to
the needed item, thereby decreasing the organism’s drive level
Perseverance
Perseverance – the tendency to continue to perform a behaviour even when it is not being reinforced
Overjustification hypothesis – the superfluous application of extrinsic rewards to intrinsically motivated
behaviour will undermine intrinsic motivation
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