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Chapter 14

CHAPTER 14: PERSONALITY - FINAL EXAM SECTION


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Chapter
14

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CHAPTER 14: PERSONALITY
The Psychodynamic Approach
Freud was the first to claim that what we do is often irrational and that the
reasons for our behaviour are seldom conscious.
Psychodynamic a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the
mind is in a state of conflict among instincts, reason, and conscience.
The Development of Freuds Theory:
Jean Martin Charcot investigated the usefulness of hypnosis as a treatment
for hysteria.
Freud and Breuer published a book called Studies on Hysteria one case in
the book was of Anna O who suffered from a number of symptoms, including
loss of speech, disturbances in vision, headaches, and paralysis and loss of
feeling in her right arm. Under hypnosis, she experienced a strongly felt emotion
that gave her relief from her symptoms. It was as if the emotions had been
bottled up, and reliving the original experiences had uncorked them. This
release of energy (which Breuer and Freud called catharsis) presumably
eliminated her symptoms. But the woman was not cured.
Freud concluded from his observations of patients that all human behaviour
is motivated by instinctual drives, which, when activated, supply psychic
energy.
If something prevents the psychic energy caused by activation of a drive from
being discharged, psychological disturbances will result.
Freud believed that instinctual drives are triggered by events in a persons
life. Many events and the reactions they cause are normal but traumatic events
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may seriously threaten the desired state of psychic energy equilibrium. During a
traumatic event, a person may try to deny or hide his/her strong emotional
reaction rather than express it. But of course we must sometimes hide and not
act on strong emotions like strong anger.
Unconscious the inaccessible part of the mind.
Freud believed that the mind represses the memories of traumatic events,
most of which are potentially anxiety provoking, from being consciously
discovered.
Freud argued that our personalities are determined by both conscious and
unconscious powers, with the unconscious exerting considerable influence on the
conscious.
Structure of the Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego:
Freud said that the mind consists of unconscious, preconscious, and conscious
elements.
The unconscious includes mental events of which we are not aware of, and the
preconscious involves mental events that may become conscious through effort.
Freud divided the mind into 3 structures: the id, the ego, and the superego.
Id the unconscious reservoir of libido, the psychic energy that fuels instincts
and psychic processes.
Libido an insistent, instinctual force that us unresponsive to the demands
of reality; the primary source of motivation.
Pleasure principle the rule that the id obeys: obtain immediate
gratification, whatever form it may take. Ex: if you are hungry, the id compels
you to eat.
For Freud, the id was a source of unrestrained, uncivilized, and ultimately
harmful behaviour.
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Ego the ego also serves as the general manager of personality, making
decisions regarding the pleasure that will be pursued at the ids demand, the
persons safety requirements, and the moral dictates of the superego that will be
followed.
Reality principle the tendency to satisfy the ids demands realistically,
which almost always involves compromising the demands of the id and superego.
Superego the repository of an individuals moral values, divided into the
conscience the internalization of a societys rules and regulations and the
ego-ideal the internalization of ones goals.
Conscience the internalization of the rules and restrictions of society; it
determines which behaviours are permissible and punishes wrongdoing with
the feelings of guilt.
Ego-ideal the internalization of what a person would like to be his or her
goals and ambitions.
Internalized prohibitions rules of behaviour learned in childhood that
protect the person from the guilt he or she would feel in the instinctual drives
were allowed to express themselves.
Freuds greatest work the interpretations of dreams, he said dreams were
motivated by repressed wishes and urges.
Manifest content the apparent storyline of a dream.
Latent content the hidden message of a dream, produced by the
unconscious.
Free association a method of Freudian analysis in which an individual is
asked to relax, clear his or her mind of current thoughts, and then report all
thoughts, images, perceptions and feeling that come to mind.
Defence Mechanisms:
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