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Chapter 16

chapter 16 broken down/high lighted

Course Code
John Bassili

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Chapter 16 Lifestyle, Stress, and Health
Cultural Evolution: Lifestyle Choices and Consequences
Cultural evolution cultures adaptive change to recurrent environmental pressures;
driven by psychological forces
Lifestyle the aggregate behaviour of a person, or the way a person leads their life
Unhealthy behaviours have reinforcing consequences in the short run and damaging
consequences in the long run. Enjoy now, suffer later
Healthy and Unhealthy Lifestyles
Coronary heart disease (CHD) narrowing of blood vessels that supply nutrients to the
Cancer malignant and intrusive tumour that destroys body organs and tissue
Serum cholesterol a chemical that occurs naturally in the bloodstream, where it serves as
a detoxifier; main culprit in CHD.
Cholesterol as two forms: HDL (high density; good cholesterol, protects against CHD)
and LDL (low density; bad cholesterol, promotes plaque)
Physical Fitness
Aerobic exercises exercises that expend considerable energy, increase blood flow and
respiration, and increase bodys efficiency in using oxygen
Cigarette Smoking
Passive smoking inhalation of smoke from others’ cigarettes; second hand smoking
Tolerance the neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) respond progressively less
and less to the presence of the drug; larger dose is then required
Physical dependence CNS neurons now require the presence of the drug to function
Withdrawal symptoms uncomfortable physical conditions such as sweating, tremors,
and anxiety

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Psychological dependence a craving to use the drug for its pleasurable effects; obtaining
and using the drug become focal point of an individuals life
Negative reinforcement people that attempts to quit drugs are faced with withdrawal
Transdermal nicotine patch bandage-like patch that allows nicotine to be absorbed
through the skin; used to help quit smoking
Drinking Alcoholic Beverages
Alcoholism an addiction to ethanol, the psychoactive agent in alcoholic beverages
Delirium tremens (DTs) pattern of withdrawal symptoms that includes trembling,
irritability, hallucinations, sleeplessness, and confusion when they attempt to quit drinking
Fetal alcohol syndrome characterized by decreased birth weight and physical
Alcohol and cigarette smoking are prompted by many of the same factors: imitation and
peer pressure
Aim to teach individual with drug problems:
1.Identify environmental cues that may cause the addictive behaviour to recur
2.Learn to behave in ways that are incompatible with the undesirable behaviour
3.Have confidence that they can overcome the addiction
4.View setbacks in overcoming the addiction as temporary and as new coping skills
can be acquired
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS
Safe sex practices include limiting the number of sexual partners, finding out sexual
history of partners, use of condoms
Alcohol myopia the salient (noticeable) of sexual activity remain clear to the drinker, but
the more distant risks of fatal infection recede to the blurry horizon
Reactions to Contagious Diseases many people still have no idea about some of the
characteristics of sexual diseases. A portion of the population thinks AIDS can be
casually transmitted
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