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PSYA02H3 (984)
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Chapter 15

Chapter 15

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 15
Social Cognition
Social Psychology
- impression formation
- schema
- central / peripheral traits
- primacy effect
- self-concept
- self/ self-schema
- cross-cultural studies
- western/ eastern cultures
- attribution
- internal/ external factors
- consensual behaviour
- distinctiveness
- consistency
- attribution bias
- fundaental
attribution error
- belief in a just word
- actor-observer effect
-impression formation, the way in which we integrate
information about another’s traits into a coherent sense of
who the person is.
-A central theme is the schema, a mental framework of
knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about
a person, place or thing. Understanding is greater when
people know the topic/ title of something before it is
introduced.
-central traits, introduced by Asch, organize and influence
our understanding of other traits. The cold-warm dimension
either gives way for farther positive or negative assumptions
to be made about a person. Words such as polite and blunt
did not have this same effect and are thus peripheral traits.
-First impressions are formed based on incoming
information; the information gathered first generally prevails
in our opinions of that person (primacy effect).
-The way you describe yourself is an expression of your self-
concept, your knowledge, feelings, and ideas about yourself
(self-identity).
-The self is a persons distinct individuality rooted by your
self-schema.
-cross-cultural psychologists are interested in the effects of
cultures on behaviour.
-If similar studies performed with members of different
cultures produce similar results, we can be more confident
that we have discovered a general principle that applies
broadly to members of our species.
-Western cultures emphasize their uniqueness as something
to appreciate (think of the starving children) whereas
Eastern cultures emphasize the paying attention to others
(think of the farmer who worked).
-The process by which people infer the causes of other
peoples behaviour is called attribution. Internal and
external factors help develop schemata of how we expect
people will act in certain situations.
-Kelley suggested what we attribute the behaviour of the
people to external or internal causes on the basis of three
types of information:
-Consensual behaviour: behaviour enacted in common
by a large number of people in a particular situation.
-Distinctiveness: the extent to which a person performs a
particular behaviour only during a particular type of event
or towards a particular person or thing.
-Consistency: whether a persons behaviour occurs
reliably over time.
-See table 15.1
-When attributing an actors behaviour to possible causes,
and observer tends to overestimate the significance of
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- self-serving bias
- false consensus
- representative
heuristic
- base-rate fallacy
- availability heuristic
dispositional factors and underestimate the significance of
situational factors. This bias is called the fundamental
attribution error. People tend to prefer internal or
dispositional explanations to situational ones.
-People generally share the belief in a just world - that the
world is a fair place and people get what they deserve.
Blaming the victim supports this (bad things happen to bad
people).
-People usually attribute their own behaviour to external
factors but other’s behaviour to internal factors (actor-
observer effect). We also tend to attribute our successes to
internal causes and our failures to external causes (self-
serving bias). Another error is for the individual to see his
response as a fair representation of a general consensus; we
overestimate our similarities to others (false consensus).
-The representativeness heuristic: matching observable
characteristics from a first impression to built stereotype we
have for different types of people. Failing to consider the
likelihood that a person is a member of a particular category
based on stats is base-rate fallacy.
-The availability heuristic: the general rule in decision
making where a person judges the likelihood or importance
of an event based on the ease with which examples of that
even come to mind.
Attitudes and Their Function
-attitudes
-mere exposure effect
-persuasion
-physical appearance
-elaboration
likelihood model
-central route
-peripheral route
-Attitudes are and evaluation of persons, places, and things.
-affective component consists of the kinds of feelings that a
particular topic arouses.
-Mere exposure effect occurs when have a positive attitude
towards a neutral stimulus simply by being repeatedly
exposed to it.
-The cognitive component consists of a set of beliefs about a
topic.
-The behavioural component consists of a tendency to act in
a particular way with respect to a particular topic.
-Variables that affect the relation between attitude and
behaviour:
-degree of specificity
-motivational relevance
-accessibility
-constraints on behaviour
-More attractive and like-able people are more competent and
persuasive. Messages appear to be most effective in
changing attitudes when they contain both emotional and
informative components.
-Elaboration likelihood model: explains the effectiveness of
persuasion.
-Central route requires the person to weigh the arguments;
substance is the argument not superficial appeal.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 15 Social Psychology Social Cognition - impression formation - impression formation, the way in which we integrate information about anothers traits into a coherent sense of who the person is. - schema - A central theme is the schema, a mental framework of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place or thing. Understanding is greater when - central peripheral traits people know the topic title of something before it is introduced. - central traits, introduced by Asch, organize and influence our understanding of other traits. The cold-warm dimension either gives way for farther positive or negative assumptions - primacy effect to be made about a person. Words such as polite and blunt did not have this same effect and are thus peripheral traits. - First impressions are formed based on incoming information; the information gathered first generally prevails - self-concept in our opinions of that person (primacy effect). - self self-schema - The way you describe yourself is an expression of your self- concept, your knowledge, feelings, and ideas about yourself (self-identity). - cross-cultural studies - The self is a persons distinct individuality rooted by your self-schema. - cross-cultural psychologists are interested in the effects of cultures on behaviour. - western eastern cultures - If similar studies performed with members of different cultures produce similar results, we can be more confident that we have discovered a general principle that applies broadly to members of our species. - Western cultures emphasize their uniqueness as something to appreciate (think of the starving children) whereas - attribution Eastern cultures emphasize the paying attention to others - internal external factors (think of the farmer who worked). - The process by which people infer the causes of other peoples behaviour is called attribution. Internal and external factors help develop schemata of how we expect - consensual behaviour people will act in certain situations. - distinctiveness - Kelley suggested what we attribute the behaviour of the people to external or internal causes on the basis of three types of information: - Consensual behaviour: behaviour enacted in common - consistency by a large number of people in a particular situation. - Distinctiveness: the extent to which a person performs a particular behaviour only during a particular type of event - attribution bias or towards a particular person or thing. - fundaental - Consistency: whether a persons behaviour occurs reliably over time. attribution error - See table 15.1 - belief in a just word - When attributing an actors behaviour to possible causes, - actor-observer effect and observer tends to overestimate the significance of www.notesolution.com
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