- impression formation
- central / peripheral traits
- primacy effect
- self/ self-schema
- cross-cultural studies
- western/ eastern cultures
- internal/ external factors
- consensual behaviour
- attribution bias
- belief in a just word
- actor-observer effect
-impression formation, the way in which we integrate
information about another’s traits into a coherent sense of
who the person is.
-A central theme is the schema, a mental framework of
knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about
a person, place or thing. Understanding is greater when
people know the topic/ title of something before it is
-central traits, introduced by Asch, organize and influence
our understanding of other traits. The cold-warm dimension
either gives way for farther positive or negative assumptions
to be made about a person. Words such as polite and blunt
did not have this same effect and are thus peripheral traits.
-First impressions are formed based on incoming
information; the information gathered first generally prevails
in our opinions of that person (primacy effect).
-The way you describe yourself is an expression of your self-
concept, your knowledge, feelings, and ideas about yourself
-The self is a person’s distinct individuality rooted by your
-cross-cultural psychologists are interested in the effects of
cultures on behaviour.
-If similar studies performed with members of different
cultures produce similar results, we can be more confident
that we have discovered a general principle that applies
broadly to members of our species.
-Western cultures emphasize their uniqueness as something
to appreciate (think of the starving children) whereas
Eastern cultures emphasize the paying attention to others
(think of the farmer who worked).
-The process by which people infer the causes of other
people’s behaviour is called attribution. Internal and
external factors help develop schemata of how we expect
people will act in certain situations.
-Kelley suggested what we attribute the behaviour of the
people to external or internal causes on the basis of three
types of information:
-Consensual behaviour: behaviour enacted in common
by a large number of people in a particular situation.
-Distinctiveness: the extent to which a person performs a
particular behaviour only during a particular type of event
or towards a particular person or thing.
-Consistency: whether a person’s behaviour occurs
reliably over time.
-See table 15.1
-When attributing an actor’s behaviour to possible causes,
and observer tends to overestimate the significance of