PSYA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Eleanor Rosch, Prenatal Development, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

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Published on 12 Oct 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Midterm Notes Chapter 11-Intelligence and Thinking
Intelligence: the general term used to refer to a person’s ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts
and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way
Any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgements
Study of Intelligence approaches:
Differential Approach: involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people’s
knowledge and ability to solve problems.
Developmental Approach: based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world
-Most influential proponent Jean Piaget
Information Processing Approach: focuses on types of skills people use to think and to solve problems
-Robert Sternberg’s influential theory of successful intelligence
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory
Charles Spearman proposed person’s performance on a test determined by two factors, g & s
G Factor factor of intelligence common to all intellectual tasks (i.e. apprehension of experience, eduction of relations, and
eduction of correlates)
S Factor factor of intelligence specific to a particular task
Solving analogies requires all three G factor abilities
-Apprehension of experience (reading and understanding the words in the analogy)
-Eduction of relations (ability to perceive the relation between Lawyer and Client)
-Eduction of Correlates (ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar one)
Correlations among tests of particular intelligences provided empirical evidence for this theory
-If people are given 10 different tasks and each measures separate independent ability, the scores will be unrelated
between tests, correlations will be about 0
-If the tests measure abilities that are different manifestations of a single trait, correlation=1
Evidence From Factor Analysis
Factor analysis: statistical procedure that identifies common factors among group of tests
-Developed by Spearman and Karl Pearson
-Provides clues about nature of intelligence but not a theory of intelligence
If scores on several tests correlate well with one another, the tests or subtests measure the same factor
Birren and Morrison Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - 11 subtests on 933 people
-Analysis revealed three factors (general intelligence, maintaining info in short term memory and manipulating numbers,
spatial ability)
-Factor Loadings express the degree to which a test is correlated to a factor
WAIS useful predictor of scholastic performance but does not include stuff like music and sports
Thurstone 56 tests to 218 college students, identified 7 factors (verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number, spatial
visualization, memory, reasoning, perceptual speed)
Esenck suggested second factor analysis can be done on Thurstone’s factors, if common factor among them, it would
support the G Factor
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Horn and Cattell performed the second factor analysis and found two major factors: fluid intelligence and crystallized
intelligence
Fluid Intelligence: relatively culture-free tasks (see relations between items or seeing patterns) (Casual Learning/Innate)
Crystallized Intelligence: acquire information from their culture such as vocab and info learned in school (School
Learning/what a person accomplishes through their fluid)
An Information Processing Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg success achieved in life strongly affected by analyzing and managing unique combination of strength and
weaknesses
-Devised Triarchic theory of intelligence derived from information processing approach (Analytic, Creative and Practical
Intelligences)
Successful Intelligence: ability to analyze one’s strengths and weaknesses, use strengths to great advantage, and
minimize impact of weaknesses by overcoming or compensating for them
Analytic Intelligence: mental mechanism used to plan and execute tasks; includes meta components, performance, and
knowledge acquisition components
-Metacomponents decide the nature of intellectual problem, select strategy for solving and allocate resources
-Performance Components processes actually used to perform the task
-Knowledge Acquisition Components use to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant info and integrating with things
already known
Creative Intelligence: ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve problems automatically that have been
encountered before
Practical Intelligence: reflects behaviours that were subject to natural selection: adaption, selection, shaping
People with damage to frontal lobe support practical intelligence importance still score high on intelligence tests, though
no longer able to plan their lives
Neuropsychological Theories of Intelligence
Garner formulated theory of multiple intelligences, rejecting idea of a single or few primary types
Logical-Mathematical: Ability to reason logically and process math equations
Verbal-Linguistic: Ability to use language, sensitivity to meanings and sounds of words
Visual-Spatial: Ability to understand patterns in closed or open spaces
Naturalist: Ability to understand patterns in nature
Bodily-Kinesthetic: Ability to control the body precisely
Musical: Ability to understand and create musical patterns
Intrapersonal: Ability to understand the self, one’s skills, emotions, thoughts and intentions
Interpersonal: Ability to recognize differences among people; understand their emotions, intentions and
motivations
Existential: intelligence of big questions
Syllogism: logical construction containing major premise, minor premise and conclusion
(All birds have feathers; Canada Goose is a bird; Canada Goose has feathers)
INTELLIGENCE TESTING
From Mandarins to Galton
2200 BC Chinese administrators tested civil servants periodically to ensure they were qualified for their jobs
Sir Francis Galton biologist and statistician most important early investigator in differences in ability
-Strongly influenced by cousin Charles Darwin
-Concluded intellectual abilities were heritable
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Document Summary

Intelligence: the general term used to refer to a person"s ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive way. Any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgements. Differential approach: involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people"s knowledge and ability to solve problems. Developmental approach: based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world. Information processing approach: focuses on types of skills people use to think and to solve problems. Charles spearman proposed person"s performance on a test determined by two factors, g & s. G factor factor of intelligence common to all intellectual tasks (i. e. apprehension of experience, eduction of relations, and eduction of correlates) S factor factor of intelligence specific to a particular task. Solving analogies requires all three g factor abilities.

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